Originally published in 1902 by Country Life, Roses for English Gardens was a two part book; Gertrude Jekyll wrote the first sixteen chapters on these roses of the day while Edward Mawley rounded out the book with notes on cultural care. Many of these roses are still available, mostly on their own roots (much recommended by myself), and make a wonderful addition to any garden.

The most common complaint with ‘Old Garden Roses’ is that many do not rebloom but it is generally accepted that they carry as many blooms per plant as do reblooming roses so you can imagine what a spectacle the shrub presents in early summer when it packs all of those yearly blooms into a 5 or 6 week period (or thereabouts). Reblooming is not something that we demand of Rhododendrons or fruit trees – why do we accept the almost complete exclusion of these once-blooming treasures of days past? Many of the Old Garden or antique roses do, in fact, rebloom; Rugosas, Hybrid Musks, Noisettes, china’s, Teas etc –  so there is a wealth of reblooming material amongst the older roses to spread the colour out through the year.

I also find that, although many of them will consume more room in a garden, they are a much more attractive shrub then the more modern rose and contribute to the display in more subtle ways. That most of them are easy to care for is perhaps even more important – pruning is less of an issue (let them roam) and they are largely immune to the various diseases that plague modern roses. Finally, the scents emanating from these roses is far superior to that of modern roses.

Once again Miss Jekyll demonstrates her consummate skill and broad gardening knowledge as she recounts her experiences, favourites and peculiarities amongst the roses of yesterday. I’ve posted the entire half of the book authored by Miss Jekyll and have also attached a Word Document of the book. Neither contain any of her images from the original book so it only amounts to 55 pages.

Enjoy

Roses for English Gardens

Download the entire book!

Jim Thorleifson

Roses for English Gardens

Gertrude Jekyll

Written with Edward Mawley and originally published in 1902

Part I

Old and New Garden Roses and their Beautiful Use in Gardens

Preface

Chapter I – New Garden Roses

Chapter II – Old Garden Roses

Chapter III – The Brier Roses

Chapter IV – Pompon Roses

Chapter V – Some of the Species as Garden Roses

Chapter VI – Roses on their Own Roots

Chapter VII – Rose Pillars

Chapter VIII – The Pergola

Chapter IX – Rose Arches and Arbours

Chapter X – Rose Screens, Hedges, and Trellises

Chapter XI – Roses as Fountains and Growing Free

Chapter XII – Roses on Walls and Houses

Chapter XIII – Roses for Converting Ugliness to Beauty

Chapter XIV – Rose Gardens

Chapter XV – Roses as Cut Flowers

Chapter XVI – Roses in English Gardens on the Riviera

Chapter XXIII – Some Lists Of The Best Roses For Various Uses

PREFACE

One of the surest signs of the great and ever-growing interest in gardening is to be seen in the remarkable improvement in the kinds of flowers that are now to be had. New plants are being constantly introduced ; good old plants, of late forgotten, are again brought forward, and a lively and wholesome competitive industry has increased among growers in the improvement of garden flowers. In no class of plant is this more apparent than among the Roses. The increasing desire to deck our gardens pictorially has been met by a truly surprising and successful series of efforts on the part of raisers, so that now, in addition to the older classes of Roses that have been available for the last forty years, namely, the Hybrid Perpetuals and Teas, there are already, in great variety, quantities of beautiful new Roses of mixed parentage for every possible use and purpose.

The time having come when there is a distinct need for a book that shall not only show how Roses may best be grown, but how they may be most beautifully used, and that will also help the amateur to acquire some idea of their nature and relationships, the present volume, with its large amount of illustration, is offered in the hope that it will fit usefully into a space as yet unfilled in garden literature.

In order that the book may be a complete Rose manual, I have had the pleasure of working in concert with Mr. Edward Mawley, who, in the second part, gives the result of his long experience as a practical rosarian.

I have to offer grateful acknowledgment to Miss Willmott for a considerable number of excellent photographs, and for valuable help in compiling the list of Rose species as garden plants ; to Mr. W. Robinson for permission to reproduce some Rose portraits from former coloured plates in The Garden; to Mr. Edward Woodall for the chapter on Riviera Garden Roses ; to Mr. E. T. Cook for frequent advice and assistance, and to the owners of The Garden and Country Life for a number of the illustrations.

Lists of Roses for special purposes are given at the end of some of the chapters where it appeared that they would be most of use. At the end of the book are also descriptive lists, and an alphabetical list of the best Roses in all classes. A note of the abbreviations used against the Rose names appears at p. 149. It will be understood that the lists of the Roses given are not complete lists of all the Roses known, but careful and well-proved selections of the best.

G.J.

CHAPTER I

New Garden Roses

One of the most distinct and wholesome effects of the spread of garden knowledge and love of flowers that has filled the land of late years is the demand for good garden Roses. By the term “garden Roses,” is meant Roses for ordinary garden use, though the word has a more exclusive use in the schedules of Rose Societies, where it means any Roses other than those that are classed as show kinds. In this case the more rigid distinction is of use, though in the garden it does not concern us in the least, for it naturally happens that a grand show Rose is often a grand garden Rose also.

But in the usual jargon of horticulture the words “garden Rose” makes one first think of Damask and Provence or Cabbage Roses, of Moss Roses, of Sweet Brier and Scotch Brier, of Cinnamon Rose and Rosa lucida [now known as Rosa virginiana], of China Rose, and of the old climbing cluster kinds ; in short, of all the older favourites that will grow readily in any garden in answer to reasonable care and preparation.

It is only of late years, since an increased recognition of the delights of the garden has spread anew throughout Britain, and is rapidly extending through her colonies, that any notable additions have been made to the garden Roses. But our best Rose growers have not been slow to perceive how gladly their good new garden Roses have been welcomed; the success of these has encouraged further effort, and whereas a few years ago lists of new Roses were mostly attractive to specialists, and consisted almost exclusively of Hybrid Perpetuals and Teas, the new Rose lists of to-day include kinds that appeal to every one who loves a garden.

The reason for the older limitation may be easily understood, for whereas success in growing the show Roses depends, to begin with, either on the possession of a good Rose soil, or on those qualifications of knowledge, determination, and command of money that can create one where it does not exist, the wants of the free and “garden” Roses are so comparatively modest, they are so accommodating and so little fastidious that with very moderate preparation and encouragement they can be made to succeed in much poorer soils. Then it is but few that aspire to the honours of the show table, while nearly every one who is master of a rood of land now desires to enjoy it as a garden.

So it has come about that one after another, more and more garden Roses have come into use and have come into being. One of the first of the outsiders to be adopted as a garden Rose was the Himalayan R. Brunoni [now known as Rosa brunonii] or moschata, with its rambling habit, its pale bluish leaves, and its clusters of milk-white bloom. Then we took up the type Rosa multiflora or polyantha, with its vigorous growth and its multitudes of Bramble-like sweet-scented flowers. Then Turner’s Crimson Rambler, a plant of Japanese origin, closely related to R. multiflora, took the garden world by storm, for its easy cultivation, great speed of growth, and its masses of showy crimson bloom. Those of us whose eyes are trained to niceties of colour-discrimination wish that the tint of this fine flower had been just a shade different. Brilliant it undoubtedly is, and its noonday brightness gives pleasure to a great number of people; but if it had had just a little less of that rank quality that it possesses slightly in excess, it would have been a still more precious thing in our gardens. The time to see it in perfection is when the sun is nearing the horizon, and when the yellow light, neutralising the purplish taint, gives the flowers of the Rambler just the quality that they unfortunately lack; then and then only they show the glorious red that the critical colour-eye demands, while at the same time their brilliancy is intensified.

From the type multiflora and some of its hybrids as parents on one side have arisen a range of garden Roses of inestimable value, most of them of rambling habit, comprising the rose-coloured Dawson, the charming pink Euphrosyne, the white Thalia and the yellow Aglaia, followed by Leuchtstern, a charming pillar Rose with pink, red-tinted, white-eyed flowers, Waltham Rambler and Eleanor Berkeley, and Psyche, rosy-pink slightly tinted yellow. From the same source on one side there are also Lion and Wallflower, crimsons, and Electra, canary-yellow; so that from R. multiflora we have already all the best colourings of which Roses are capable, while we may confidently expect many other pretty things.

The name polyantha for this Rose is as often given as multiflora. It seems needless that the two forms of the specific name should be almost equally in use, the more so that they mean exactly the same thing, polyantha being the Greek and multiflora the Latin for “many-flowered.” Another thing is puzzling to the amateur, that the name polyantha is also used for the class of quite dwarf Roses, such as Paquerette, Mignonette, &c. It would seem more sensible to keep the two classes quite apart and to use the name polyantha or multiflora only for the rambling kinds that retain the free-growing character of the type, and to have for the smaller bushy kinds some simple name that has no pretension to the character of a botanical specific name. A botanical name is in any case wrongly used for any class of garden flower that is a hybrid or a still later cross, and that nowhere in nature exists in a single state. These small so-called polyantha Roses should be simply called Pompon Roses, then there would be no puzzle or ambiguity, and every one would know what was meant, whereas if Roses fifteen inches and fifteen feet high are both classed as polyantha, unless the popular name of each kind is known, there is sure to be confusion.

These pretty dwarf Cluster Roses are not nearly enough used. They have an innocent, childlike charm of their own, quite distinct from the more grown-up attractiveness of their larger brethren—one thinks of such a little bush as Paquerette as in place in a child’s garden or on a child’s grave. They have their uses, too, in the Rose garden, in any small, dainty spaces, as at the foot of a platform on which a sundial rests; at some point where some small beautiful thing could be seen on a level with the eye; in small beds by themselves, or as an edging to Roses of slightly larger growth.

The Himalayan free Roses have been mentioned first because it is from them, and from multiflora especially, that the most important of our newer garden Roses of the rambling, cluster-blooming kinds have been derived. But before coming to some of the older garden Roses, mention must be made of the Japanese R. wichuriana and its hybrids. This species has introduced to our gardens Roses of quite an unusual way of growth. They grow fast and are of rambling habit, and though they may be trained to pillar shape, their favourite way is to trail upon the ground, downward as often as not, and to ramble downhill over banks, and uneven ground; so that in our gardens we may now have quite a new aspect of Rose beauty. They hybridise freely, and already we have many beautiful flowers twice the size of the type, more free-blooming, of various tender colourings and charming fragrance. A well-devised cross with Perle des jardins (T.) has given us two lovely Roses, Jersey Beauty and Gardenia, of dainty yellow colouring; while Evergreen Gem, whose pollen parent was the pale yellow Tea Madame Hoste, is quite a large flower and deliciously scented. Many a garden has uninteresting turf banks between two levels. Here is one of the most obvious places to use these charming Roses, which are beautiful not only for their blossom, but for the close growth of their neat glossy foliage.

Another Japanese Rose, R. rugosa, has also given some valuable varieties and hybrids. The beautiful white Blanc double de Coubert—whitest Rose of any known—has for purity of colour eclipsed the older, duller white Madame Georges Bruant, though this is still indispensable. Blanc double de Coubert is one of the best of Roses, for it blooms the whole summer through and well into autumn. Its rich, deep green foliage, highly polished though heavily reticulated, persisting till late in the year, gives it that look of perfect health and vigour that the leafage of so many Roses lacks in the later summer. The danger in rugosa hybrids is the tendency towards a strong magenta colouring, such as is suggested by the type. But in some of the seedlings a judicious choice of pollen parent has amply corrected this, as in the charming salmon-pink Conrad F. Meyer. This, with the white Scheelicht and the pretty white Fimbriata, are among the most charming of the rugosa varieties.

The great hardiness of the rugosas enables them to be used in exposed places where many kinds of Roses would be crippled or would perish. Their strong, bushy growth and somewhat ferocious armature of prickles fits them above all other Roses for use as hedges, and not hedges of ornament only, but effective hedges of enclosure and defence.

Among the recent garden Roses of great merit is the beautiful hybrid Tea Dawn, also Rosa sinica Anemone, a little tender, but lovely against a wall; while every year is adding to our garden Roses of the loose, half-double Tea class such good things as Sulphurea and Corallina, whose names denote their colourings.

Several beautiful species, formerly in botanical collections only, have also been brought into use, while others have been introduced. Among these are R. altaica, described in the chapter on Brier Roses. Then we have R. macrantha, with large pink blooms, and Andersoni, also with pink flowers; they both make handsome, rather large, bushes. Others of the good wild Roses are dealt with in the chapter on Species as Garden Roses.

The work of the late Lord Penzance among the Sweet Briers has given us a whole range of garden Roses of inestimable value. He sought to give colour and size by means of the pollen parent, and so obtained strong as well as tender colouring and also increased size, while retaining the scented leaf and the free character of growth. It seems as though this eminent lawyer, who in some of the years of his mature practice had to put the law in effect in decreeing the separation of unhappy human couples, had sought mental refreshment in the leisure of his latest days by devoting it to the happy marriages of Roses. Though his name will ever stand high in the records of legal practice, it is doubtful whether in years to come it will not be even more widely known in connection with the Roses he has left us, the fruits of the recreation of his last years of failing strength.

New Garden Roses


R. BRUNONI – type, single, milk-white, in clusters.

Double var., milk-white, in clusters.

R. MULTIFLORA, syn. Polyantha – single, white, in large clusters.

Double, syn. Polyantha – single, white, in large clusters.

Large flowered, single, white, in large clusters.

(HYBRIDS)

Crimson Rambler; crimson.

Euphrosyne; pink.

Thalia; white.

Dawson; rose.

Psyche; pink, salmon-yellow centre.

Aglaia; yellow-pink.

Eleanor Berkeley; pale pink.

Leuchtstern; white and pink.

Waltham Rambler; white and pink.

Electra; canary-yellow.

Claire jacquier; buff-yellow.

Queen Alexandra; deep rose-pink, pale centre.

Lion; single crimson.

Wallflower; rosy crimson.

POMPON ROSES

Paquerette; white.

Anne Marie de Montravel; white.

Bouquet parfait; light and full rose.

Eugénie Lamesch; orange, rose-tinted.

Léonie Lamesch; copper-red, yellow centre.

Clothilde Soupert; rose.

Georges Pernet; rose.

Gloire des Polyantha; rose and white.

Mignonette; pale pink.

Mosella; white and yellow.

Archduchess Elizabeth Marie; pale yellow.

Clothilde Pfitzer; white.

Clothilde Pfitzer; white.

R. WICHURIANA – single, white.

(HYBRIDS)

Gardenia; yellow-white.

Jersey Beauty; single, pale yellow.

Alberic Barbier; cream-white.

Manda’s Triumph; double, white.

R. RUGOSA  (Vars. and Hybrids)

Single, white.

Blanc double de Coubert; pure white, double.

Madame Georges Bruant; warm-white.

Fimbriata; white.

Merc6des; rose and white.

Souvenir de Philemon Cochet; white, pink to centre.

Rose Apples; pink.

SWEET BRIER (R. rubiginosa)

Common, pink.

Double, red.

Janet’s Pride; half-double, striped.

PENZANCE HYBRIDS OF SWEET BRIER (Selection)

Green Mantle; pink.

Anne of Geierstein; rose.

Rose Bradwardine; rose.

Meg Merrilees; rose.

Lady Penzance; copper.

VARIOUS

Rosa sinica Anemone; pink (tender).

R. moschata nivea; white.

Others in the chapter on Species as Garden Roses.

CHAPTER II

Old Garden Roses

The first Rose that comes to mind among the old favourites is the Cabbage or Provence (R. centifolia). No Rose surpasses it in excellence of scent; it stands alone as the sweetest of all its kind, as the type of the true Rose smell. The Moss Rose is a variety of the Cabbage Rose, with a mossy calyx having its own delicious scent, of a more aromatic or cordial character. They are so well known that one need say no more than that they should never be neglected or forgotten.

There are several dwarf Roses—dwarf not in the nurseryman’s sense, which only means a Rose that is not a standard—but actually dwarf in stature and correspondingly small in all their parts, that are derived from the Provence Rose. These are the neat little De Meaux and the still prettier Spong, and the charming Moss de Meaux, and their white varieties.

Of the old Provins Roses (R. gallica) there are a number of catalogued varieties. They are mostly striped or splashed with rosy and purplish colour. I have grown them nearly all, but though certainly pretty things, they are of less value in the garden than the striped Damask Rosa Mundi. But there is an old garden Rose, the Blush gallica, much more double, and that grows into very strong bushes, that is a good Rose for all gardens. It will put up with any treatment. I have it on the top of a dry wall where it tumbles over in the prettiest way and blooms even more freely than the bushes on the level.

These two names Provence and Provins, for two classes of garden Roses of the same kind of growth and use, are so much alike that they are one of the puzzles that the Rose amateur has to get clear in his mind in the earlier stages of his education. Provence is the Cabbage Rose (R. centifolia); Provins is Rosa gallica, the garden kinds being mostly striped; pretty, but not of the first importance ; the best as far as my own knowledge and judgment go being Reine Blanche (if it be a true gallica) and the full double Blush gallica.

Near the Provence Rose, in sentiment as well as in a sort of natural garden classification, comes the Damask, charming also with its delicious though fainter scent and its wide-open crimson flowers. The Damask Rose, with some of the older Gallicas, may be considered the ancestors of many of our modern Roses, and though there is no record of the earlier pedigrees, those who are old enough to remember some of the first Hybrid Perpetuals will retain the recollection of some Roses such as Lee’s Perpetual in which such parentage, probably passing through a Portland Rose, of which group there are a few named kinds, is fairly traceable. The parti-coloured form is a charming bush Rose that should be much more used; it is known by the names Rosa Mundi, Cottage Maid, and York and Lancaster. The latter name is also claimed for another striped Rose of much less value, but the name is so pretty and the Rose so charming that most of us think they ought to belong to each other, and that there is at least no harm in their association for general use.

The newly found but really old garden Rose now called Hebe’s Lip, otherwise Reine Blanche, seems to belong to the Provins group (gallica). There were formerly in old gardens some very dark-coloured Damask Roses called Velvet Roses, that are either lost or have become rare, as they are now seldom seen.

An old Rose that used to be in nearly every garden and is now but rarely seen is the Cinnamon Rose (R. cinnamomea), in some parts of the southern counties called the Whitsuntide Rose. The small flat flowers are pretty and have a distinct scent. It makes a neat bush of rather upright habit. An equally old garden Rose is R. lucida, an American species. It is fairly common in old gardens, forming rounded bushes, and will grow anywhere even in the poorest soils, where the autumn tinted foliage, bright yellow and crimson, and the quantities of flat-shaped scarlet hips are very ornamental. The flower is single and of a full pink colour. It seems to like slight shade, as it shrivels in full sun. There is a strong growing garden variety, much more free in habit than the type, but it does not make such neat bushes. It is remarkable that a Rose so well known should have no English name. The double form that has been long in English gardens, but has never become common, and whose merit is only now be- coming recognised, is One of the loveliest of bush Roses. It has the pretty old name Rose d’Amour. How this Rose of American origin first came to be a plant of old English gardens is a question that I must leave to be answered by the botanist-antiquary ; what chiefly concerns us is that it is one of the most delightful things in the garden.

The Scotch Briers are considered in the chapter on Brier Roses, and the newer Sweet Briers in that of New Garden Roses, though the old pink single Sweet Brier is, of course, in place here. Many are the ways in which it can be used. Planted in a double row and judiciously pruned, it makes a capital and most fragrant hedge from four to six feet high; but it is perhaps prettiest planted among shrubs, with its graceful arching stems shooting up through them, or in bushy brakes either by itself or among Thorn bushes in one of the regions where the garden joins wilder ground. It will also assume quite a climbing habit if it is led into some tree like a Holly, or encouraged to scramble through straggling Black or White Thorn of tallish growth in some old hedge.

Important among the old garden Roses is R. alba. Though it is allowed to bear a botanical name, it is not thought to be a species, but is considered a cross between canina and gallica. This capital Rose is often seen in cottage gardens, where it is a great favourite. The double white form is the most frequent, but the delicate pink Maiden’s Blush is a better flower. Lovelier still is the less double Cé1este, a Rose of wonderful beauty when the bud is half opened. When once known the albas may be recognised, even out of flower, by the bluish colouring and general look of the very broad leafleted leaves. The blue colouring is accentuated in Céleste, and is a charming accompaniment to the rosy tinting of the heart of the opening flower. The albas, as well as others of the garden Roses, make admirable standards, their hardiness and strong constitution enabling them to be grown into quite large-headed bushes. It is no uncommon thing to see standards with heads a yard through in the gardens of cottagers, who also grow some of the Ayrshires in this way.

Rosa alpina has given us the class of free-growing Roses known as Boursault. Of late years so many more and better climbing kinds have been raised, that the Botirsaults will probably be less and less used, especially as the crimson varieties of the Amadis type have a rather unpleasant colour. One of this race, the Blush Boursault, would be worthy of a place in every garden if it were not that the flowers are seldom perfect. Every now and then there is a good one, and then it is the loveliest thing in the garden, with its almost matchless tinting of tender milk-white deepening to a wonderfully pure rose colour in the centre. Of the others, Morletti, of rather deep pink colouring, is the best. The alpinas may be known by their smooth red-barked stems, the mature ones being without prickles. R. rubrifolia, with pale pink flowers, red stems and red foliage, is also an alpina. In fruit they are conspicuous because of their long-shaped hips.

The field Rose (R. arvensis), one of the two of our commonest native hedge Roses (the one with the white, rather clustered flowers), has some good garden varieties. One with large single flowers and strong rambling habit is an old favourite of mine, and another, half double, is equally good and still more free of bloom.

The Banksian Roses (natives of China) are a little tender in England, and are thankful for a place on a warm wall; just such a place as also suits the Persian Briers. The double yellow is the best for growing in England, and lovely it is, with its rich clusters of tiny butter-coloured bloom. In many gardens it is a failure, absolutely refusing to flower, but often does well on chalk soils.

The old Pink China Rose is always welcome, with its pretty clear pink colouring, its dainty scent and neat foliage. It makes compact, low hedges, but I like it best grown with Rosemary bushes. They look just right together and seem to enjoy each other’s company. I like to plant them in some place at the foot of a rather warm wall and to train some of the Rosemary to run right up the wall, with other Rosemary bushes free of it in front, and to have it in plenty, and the China Roses sometimes in groups of three or four, sometimes singly and some also trained up the wall among and between the Rosemary bushes.

The crimson China, Cramoisi Supérieur, has long been with us, and also the climbing variety; both capital Roses in their places. There are one or two others of intermediate colouring. But of the old Chinas (garden varieties, not hybrids) the pink and the Cramoisi are the best.

The beautiful Fortune’s Yellow has been with us long enough to take its place among the older garden Roses. It is also from China and tender, liking a hot wall; but I have observed that it also likes to be led through some other thin wall shrub that will protect the leaves in May when the late frosts come; this seems to prevent that falling of the leaves in May which so often happens to the unprotected shoots. But it is a Rose that cannot always be trusted to bloom well. We have to consider it a capricious flower. Sometimes it is loaded with its glorious loose copper-coloured bloom, and sometimes it is almost bare. We have to remember that it is from a climate very different from our own, and that we cannot expect to have it in such complete control as we may be fairly sure of assuming in the case of hardier Roses; so that when it does do well we must be all the more thankful.

Coupe d’Hébé, a pretty and sweet Rose of a good full pink colour, is of uncertain origin ; it makes a capital pillar Rose. There are also some old Roses of free growth of which Lady Emily Peel and Emilie Plantier are good representatives. Both are of tender colouring and have an interesting, old-world appearance; they bloom in loose bunches—not short-stalked enough to call clusters—but of admirable freedom for cutting in long branches and arranging in water. of the recreation of his last years of failing strength.

Some of the Best Old Garden Roses


CABBAGE OR PROVENCE ROSES (R. centifolia)

Other varieties.

MOSS ROSES (R. centifolia muscosa)

Common Pink

Other varieties.

POMPONS of the centifolia class

De Meaux; pink, and white variety.

Moss de Meaux; pink.

Spong; pink.

Burgundy; pink, and white variety.

PROVINS ROSES (R. gallica)

Mécène; white and rose striped.

Perle des Panachées; white, striped lilac-rose.

Gros Provins Panaché; red and white striped.

Other varieties.

DAMASK (R. damascena)

Common Red.

Cottage Maid, Rosa Mundi, or York and Lancaster; red and white.

One or two other varieties.

CINNAMON ROSE (R. cinnamomea); pink.

R. LUCIDA; rose.

Rose d’Amour, its double variety.

SCOTCH BRIERS; including the type Burnet Rose (R. spinosissima), and the double kinds in several colourings.

SWEET BRIER, the old single pink.

THE WHITE ROSE (R. alba)

Double White.

Maiden’s Blush; blush.

Celeste; blush.

BOURSAULT (R. alpina)

Several varieties, the best being:

Morletti; rose.

Blush Boursault; blush white, clear rose to centre.

FIELD ROSE (R. arvensis)

Single and half-double garden kinds.

BANKSIAN ROSE (R. Banksiæ)

Double Yellow; the best, nankeen yellow.

CHINA (R. indica)

Common Pink.

Cramoisi Supérieur and its climbing variety; deep crimson.

Other varieties.

FORTUNE’S YELLOW (R. Fortunei); tender, orange and copper.

MISCELLANEOUS

Coupe d’Hébé; pink pillar rose.

Madame Plantier; white, large bush or pillar.

Emilie Plantier; free, pink white.

Lady Emily Peel; free, warm white.

There are other varieties in this class.

PORTLAND ROSE

Rose du Roi and others; rose and red.

CLIMBING CLUSTER ROSES; known as Ayrshire, Hybrids of sempervirens, Musk, &c.

Dundee Rambler; warm white.

Garland; warm white.

Bennett’s Seedling; white.

Ruga; flesh.

F61icit6-Perp6tue; cream white.

Flora; pink.

Splendens; warm white.

Queen of the Belgians; white.

Some others.

Others in the chapter on Species as Garden Roses.

CHAPTER III

The Brier Roses

Roses of one sort or another are with us in the open garden for five months out of the twelve, namely from the end of May to well on in October.

One of the first to bloom in an ordinary garden collection is likely to be Rosa altaica, the close forerunner of its near relations the Scotch Briers. Though it is a native of a far distant mountain range of Central Asia, it is almost identical in appearance with our native Burnet Rose (R. spinosissima). It blooms some ten days earlier and the flowers are a shade larger and the whole plant rather more free of growth, but there is the same bloom of tender lemon white, the same typical brier foliage and the same showy black hips. It is a capital garden plant, and takes its place naturally with the hardy Briers.

By the first week of June the Scotch Briers are in flower, in all their pretty colourings of pink and rose and pale yellow, besides the strongest growing of all, the double white. Those who are interested in this class of Rose should inquire in the good old Scotch gardens, where no doubt fine forms still exist that have not come into trade. One of the best and quite the sweetest has become rare, and sometimes cannot be had even in the best Rose nurseries. It is of a pale pink colour, and is conspicuous among other kinds for remaining some time in a globular or half-opened shape. The leaves are of a bluish tint, and the scent is stronger and sweeter than that of any other.

The Scotch Briers are excellent plants for many kinds of use, but are perhaps best of all in wild banks with Heaths and Cistuses. No bushy thing is better for the capping of a dry wall, for it will hang over and also throw out runners between the stones and show itself off quite at its best. These fine hardy Briers have also one merit that most Roses lack, for in winter the leafless crowd of close-growing, plentifully-prickled branches forms masses of warm bronze colouring that have quite a comforting appearance. The pretty Briers might well replace the dull and generally ugly steep slopes of turf that disfigure so many gardens. They are charming accompaniments to steps and their low balustrades; they are equally in place in the humblest garden and the most exalted, and in all sorts and kinds of places and for all kinds of uses they hardly ever come amiss.

They are also distinctly in place crowning the upper portions of bold rockwork; in fact this way of having them is one of the very best, for they love free air and unstinted light, and their neat bushy forms and crowded wreaths of bloom are never seen to better advantage than when viewed a little from below.

The Scotch Briers are derived from the native Burnet Rose (R. spinosissima), and are amongst the hardiest and most accommodating of their race. Even in the poorest soils they will grow freely if only they are given a little nutritive encouragement in their first year; after that they take care of themselves. The Burnet Rose is found in many parts of England and Scotland, generally in heathy places not very far from the sea. Among its many merits the beauty of its large, round, black hips should not be forgotten. These are like exaggerated black currants, only more flattened at the poles, with a diameter of from half to three-quarters of an inch.

There is a useful Rose, a hybrid of these Briers, that should be grown with them, called Stanwell Perpetual. It fully deserves its name, as it flowers throughout the summer. Its weak point is a somewhat straggly habit. To correct this it is well to place three plants in one group close together—that is to say, about a foot apart—when they will close up and form a well-shaped bush.

We are apt to think of the so-called Austrian Briers in connection with the Scotch, but it should be remembered that whereas the Scotch Briers are among the hardiest of our Roses, the Austrians are rather tender. The name Austrian is misleading, for they are of oriental origin, and except in the most favoured climates of our islands should be in the warmest and most sheltered places we can find for them; but they are so beautiful that they well deserve a good wall space. They are in three or perhaps four forms; the single yellow (Rosa lutea), and its double form, the Persian yellow, and another very near garden variety called Harrisoni. Then there is the gorgeous single Austrian Copper, whose petals are yellow outside and vermilion within.

CHAPTER IV

Pompon Roses

Some mention was made in the chapter on New Garden Roses of the confusion arising from the use of the name polyantha for the free rambling kinds, and also for some of the dwarfest growing Roses that we have. The word “dwarf” in Rose language has already been rather erroneously assigned to Roses of bush form to distinguish them from standards, whether the Rose in question will grow twenty feet or only two, so that the name Dwarf Roses would be confusing. Sometimes they are called Miniature Roses, but Pompon is the better name. It is a French word denoting any kind of upholstered ornament of a roundish, tufted form. The name has been excellently applied to the small bloomed Chrysanthemums, whose flowers are about an inch across, and that look like close tufts of petals. Just what Pompon Chrysanthemums are to the other kinds, so are the Pompon Roses to their larger fellows. The most important of them are the small kinds of partly polyantha or multiflora extraction, with the close, bushy, low-growing habit and clustered flowers.

They are charming plants for any small spaces. They are commonly used as edgings to beds of larger Roses, but it is doubtful whether they are not best by themselves in small beds; never in large beds, for here the sense of proportion is at once offended. But in a Rose garden, for instance, whose main form would be a long parallelogram, a scheme of some little beds at the ends for the Pompons might be designed with excellent effect, the next group of beds being of kinds of moderate growth, and so on to the larger Roses of the midmost section. Or, in the Rose garden scheme, there may occur some very narrow beds or borders intended to show only as a wide line or single ribbon in the design. Here is the place for the Pompons, and many a little nook in the free garden, and above all in the rock-garden, where they are admirable.

The little Roses de Meaux, Spong, and Moss de Meaux will serve the same use, also the small China Cramoisi Supérieur, and the tiny representatives of the same family known as lawrenceana.

There is also the very charming little Fairy Rose, rarely seen and of doubtful origin, but perhaps the loveliest little Rose, both for its tender colour and for its supreme daintiness, that could well be imagined.

Some of the best Pompons of the multiflora section

Amélie Susanne Morin; white, flushed yellowish.

Anne Marie de Montravel; white.

Archduchess Elizabeth Marie; canary, buff and white to centre.

Bouquet parfait; rose, darker edges.

Camille de Rochetaille; white.

Clara Pfitzer silvery white, shaded rose.

Clothilde Soupert; rose and red,

Colibri; copper-yellow, shading to white.

Etoile d’Or; pale yellow.

Eugénie Lamesch; buff yellow.

Georges Pernet; rose, peach and yellow.

Gloire des Polyantha; rose and white.

Léonie Lamesch; deep copper-red, yellow centre.

Mosella; white and yellow.

Mignonette; pink.

Perle d’Or; buff yellow.

Other Pompon Roses

Dwarf centifolia, De Meaux.

Moss de Meaux.

Spong.

Lawrenceana and var. Pompon de Paris.

Fairy Rose.

White Pet.

Dwarf Burgundy and white var.

CHAPTER V

Some of the Rose Species as Garden Roses

It is obvious that our garden Roses must have come originally from some wild kinds, and it adds immensely to the interest of our gardens to know something about these original types and the influence they have had in the making of our garden Roses; moreover some of the actual types are desirable in themselves. Like other classes of plants that are prime favourites, such as Daffodils and Irises, some prominent types have become the ancestors of a host of hybrids and garden varieties, and a close acquaintance with the character of the type plant will often give a very fair idea of the parentage of any garden Rose whose pedigree is unrecorded.

Though Roses have been for many hundred years the most highly prized of garden flowers, yet their antiquity, as far as our modern gardens are concerned, cannot be compared, for instance, to that of wheat, whose origin, in direct association with any one wild grass, has never yet been satisfactorily determined. We can trace the descent of all our Roses, within a move or two, from their wild ancestry, and, by the aid of the eye alone, observe relationships. Botanical characters, such as the strongly serrated stipule in multiflora, are a sure guide, but as this book is for the amateur, and deals with the subject from the point of view of garden observation and garden enjoyment, it is well to acquire the more rule of thumb, if unscientific, method of noting the visible links. Thus we learn when we see a hybrid Rose whose leaves are bluish and of a dull surface, wide in the leaflet and strongly saw-edged, to at once suspect the influence of alba. One soon gets to know the characteristic leaf of a China, and the habit and leaf character of a centifolia (Cabbage) or a gallica. The leaf of rugosa, again, cannot be mistaken, and is strongly shown in its descendants, even though the other parent was some Rose of a very different nature.

There are, of course, a great many species of Roses, and numbers of them are only plants for botanical collections. Only those that concern the garden in the type form, and those that are the parents of garden varieties, are here named and briefly described.

Rosa acicularis.  – A Rose with bright pink bloom and glaucous foliage; a native of Siberia; it is pretty and interesting, flowering at the end of May.

R. alba. – Not considered a real species though the name is usually admitted in botanical classification. Semi-double white, with handsome bluish leaves. The double White Rose of cottage gardens, Maiden’s Blush and Celeste are among its garden varieties.

R. alpina. – A native of Europe and parent of the Boursault Roses. The mature stems are red and without prickles. The bright red hips are very long in shape.

R. altaica. – The representative of our native Burnet Rose (R. spinosissima) in Northern Central Asia. A beautiful garden bush with lemon-white flowers.

R. arvensis. – One of our own hedge Roses; a large Single-bloomed variety of extra rambling habit and some half double ones are good garden plants.

R. Banksiae. – A rambling Chinese Rose without prickles, best known in England by the double yellow form.

R. beggeriana. – From Central Asia; a bush with small glabrous leaves and small, white, unpleasant smelling flowers; an interesting kind though not showy.

R. blanda. – North American. Called also the Hudson’s Bay or Labrador Rose; a good-sized bush with large pink flowers.

R. bracteata. – From China. The Macartney Rose, with large white blooms and handsome polished leaves. There is also a double variety called Marie L6onide which is stronger growing than the type.

R. carolina. – A North American species, not of the first importance, and yet of some value in that it blooms in late summer and autumn.

R. centifolia. – The type of the Cabbage or Provence Roses, of the Moss Roses and the small de Meaux.

R. cinnamomea. – The double form is the Cinnamon Rose of our older gardens. The flowers are rather few, pink or pale rose, and flattened.

R. clynophylla. – A white-flowered trailing Rose of scrambling habit; scarcely suitable for a garden, but good for a wild place.

R. damascena. – (Damask). A good old garden Rose of oriental origin, with several varieties, red, white and striped.

R. Ecae. – A tender Rose from Abyssinia, with yellow flowers the size of a shilling. It does well occasionally in the south of England.

R. gallica. – The type of most of the older garden Roses. This and the Damask Rose are no doubt the ancestors of the modern Hybrid Perpetuals. Pretty bushes in many varieties.

R. humilis. – A white Rose. R. humilis rugosa is an excellent bush garden Rose with pink flowers.

R. indica. – The type of the China Rose, but there are other forms of R. indica that are apparently the types of some of the Teas.

R. Laevigata. – A native of China; it makes a good pillar or climbing Rose in the south of England, though it is better in France. It has shining leaves and large white flowers.

R. lucida. – A well-known garden Rose from North America, with shining leaves and rose-coloured flowers. It grows into bushy masses. The double variety, though not common, is very beautiful.

R. lutea. – An oriental yellow Brier, the origin of the double Persian yellow, and of the Austrian Copper.

R. macrantha. – Single large rose coloured; a wild hybrid of canina and gallica.

R. macrophylla. – A handsome, tall growing Rose with many large, full-pink flowers. It makes a good pillar Rose and deserves to be more generally planted.

R. microphylla. – A Chinese Rose with buff-coloured wood and straight, sharp, gooseberry-like prickles. The bud is curious from the prickly calyx. The double variety is a handsome flat flower, light pink, with crimson centre.

R. mollis pomifera. – The Apple-bearing Rose of older gardens. The foliage is soft and bluish, the flowers pink and the hips large and handsome.

R. moschata = R. Brunoni. – A rambling Himalayan Rose of great beauty, bearing a quantity of clustered white bloom and having graceful bluish foliage. Best used to ramble through trees and bushes.

R. multiflora = polyantha. – Of eastern Asiatic origin. It makes large bushy brakes by itself and is the parent of many of our best rambling Roses.

R. omissa. – An erect bush with pink flowers and grey, softly pubescent leaves. A pretty and interesting Rose.

R. pisocarpa. – A rather straggling Californian bush, flowering in corymbs. The leaves are glabrous and the flowers pink or red.

R. Pissardi. – A handsome Persian Rose with white bloom.

R. rubiginosa. – The native Sweetbrier. In the type form an indispensable Rose. The beautiful Penzance hybrids derived from it should be in every garden.

R. rugosa. – The Japanese Ramanas Rose. One of the hardiest of Roses. There are good garden forms and hybrids. The hips are the showiest of any known Rose.

R. rubrifolia. – An European Rose with small red flowers and red stems and leaves; very near R. alpina.

R. sempervirens. – A wild Italian Rose, the parent of many of our older cluster and rambling Roses. The leaves are small and polished and endure through the greater part of the winter.

R. setigera. – The latest to bloom of the wild Roses. From North America. Flowers magenta-rose. It makes a good pillar Rose.

R. simplicifolia = berberifolia. – A small and tender yellow Rose, requiring a sheltered place against a warm wall.

R. spinosissima. – The native Burnet Rose, type of the well-known Scotch Briers.

R. wichuriana.. – A trailing Japanese species with small, polished, deep green leaves and white flowers. Beautiful hybrids are now being derived from it.

CHAPTER VI

Roses on Their Own Roots

Many of our ordinary garden Roses are necessarily own root plants. This is because they are so easily propagated by other methods than budding. Provence, Damask, the albas and the Briers increase by suckers, Sweet-brier by seed or cuttings, and the free-growing Ayrshires and multiflora hybrids by cuttings or layers. But there are many gardens where other Roses, especially the Teas and Hybrid Teas, kinds that with rare exceptions are sold grafted, would be better on their own roots.

Such plants have several advantages. They are much longer lived, they give more bloom, they bloom more continuously, and they throw up no troublesome suckers.

The common Dog Rose, the most usual stock in England, is very troublesome in the way of suckers, and often in the case of Roses from some good foreign raiser, the stock, if not carefully watched, will overpower the scion, and we find we have a flourishing bush certainly, but of Manetti or of De la Grifferaie instead of the Rose desired.

Grafted plants may be best for the production of show blooms, but the bush that is to produce the show bloom is to a great extent reared and nurtured for that purpose, and the severe pruning to encourage larger flowers and the shading to preserve colour put the plant that is to bear them out of the category of beautiful things in the garden, whereas the own root Roses, bearing slightly smaller flowers-though there are exceptions even to this—fulfil their best purpose as true garden plants.

There can be no doubt that on rather light soils and quite poor ones—not of course left to themselves, but moderately and reasonably improved—own root Roses of the kinds classed as show Roses do better than grafted. This being so, and their other advantages being considered, it seems strange that they are not oftener so grown. Moreover they strike readily in July and August, so that if they cannot be obtained elsewhere, they can easily be made at home from grafted plants.

Every one who has grown Roses on a poor or dry soil, even when beds have been well prepared and duly mulched and all reasonable care given, knows only too well that sad, worn-out look of unhappy grafted Roses, some three years after planting. There are varieties that to the Rose lover are indispensable, such as Catherine Mermet, a kind that- will do quite well in such soils on its own roots, whereas the same grand Rose grafted is a total failure.

There is also a satisfaction in knowing just what one is growing. If a Rose is on its own roots there is no doubt about its identity. If it fails after reasonable trial we may know that the Rose itself will not be happy, and not that it is perhaps a tantrum of the stock – maybe we do not even know what stock!

Then the foreign stocks are plants from various parts of Europe, perhaps from soils of quite different chemical constituents. Some particular stock may not suit some particular garden, so that the grower’s perplexities are much increased, and he is offered additional chances of going wrong. If the plant is on its own roots and fairly treated it does well or it does not, and there the matter ends.

CHAPTER VII

Rose Pillars

A pillar in garden phrase is rather an elastic term, for though a Rose pillar pure and simple is what it seems to be—that is to say, a Rose grown to a certain height in upright shape—there are other developments of the form that are commonly accepted as of the pillar family, and may be conveniently described under the same title. The foundation of the pillar proper is generally a post of larch or oak or a narrow upright iron framework. A Rose is chosen whose height and natural way of growth is suitable, and it is trained and encouraged to grow so that it will show a column of bloom over the greater part of its surface, and so as not to be too leggy at the bottom. A perspective of Rose pillars is a charming feature in a garden, and one of the ways in which their beauty may be best enjoyed. They should be so placed that one can go right up to them and see the Roses at eye level and below it and also against the sky, and smell their sweet scent in perfect comfort as they grow. The posts may either stand quite free, or, for the better showing of the rambling Roses, be connected by a chain that hangs in easy festoons.

Another form of pillar is of greater width, when either three or four posts are planted in group, or a wider iron frame is placed to make a thicker block of upright Roses. Another is wider still, and the Roses are trained either up or round it outside, or up a central support and then out at the top, from whence they fall over and cover the sides. This is an excellent way of growing that beautiful old Rose Blairii No. 2. For full fifty years this fine thing has been with us, and in its own way there is as yet nothing better. Its origin is not clearly known, but it seems to be related to the China Roses. Its dainty pink colouring, deepening to the centre, gives it a rare charm, and recalls the loveliness of a looser Rose, the Blush Boursault, that, alas! so seldom gives well-formed blooms. Another way of forming the thick pillar or balloon is to have a stout wooden central post and three intersecting iron arches each six feet wide, forming six outer standards that arch over to the central post, and lateral wires girthing the whole about eighteen inches apart. The post should be five to six inches thick, the iron arches three-eighths of an inch, and the lateral wires one- quarter inch. In the case of a structure of this size six plants of the same kind of Rose are used, one to each upright, and all are trained upwards.

This thick form of pillar leads to the Rose umbrella, a way of training a free-growing standard that, though its evident elaboration of support does not commend it to people of simple taste, yet certainly does produce a wonderful show of bloom. But the iron frame, if of any size, has to be guyed all round by stiffly strained wires, and these have to be fixed to stumps driven into the ground, and some of us feel that a way of growing that entails the necessity of employing such complicated machinery of support is out of harmony with the Rose sentiment and damping to Rose fervour.

Some Of The Best Pillar Roses (Tall).

Multiflora hybrids.

Wichuriana hybrids.

Ayrshires.

Climbing Aimée Vibert, Noisette; white.

Waltham Climber, Tea; red.

Reine Marie Henriette, Hybrid Tea; rosy red.

Reine Olga de Wurtemburg, H.T.; red.

Carmine Pillar, Hyb.; deep rose.

Crimson Rambler, Mult; crimson.

Longworth Rambler, N.; rose-crimson.

Gloire de Dijon, T.; buff and orange.

Bouquet d’Or, T.;

Madame Bérard, T.;

Penzance Briers.

William Allen Richardson, N.; orange.

Madame Alfred Carrière, Hybrid Noisette; warm white.

Bardou Job, T.; dark red.

Baronne de Hoffmann, T.; copper red.

Climbing Devoniensis, T.; yellow white,

Clothilde Soupert, T.; carmine rose.

Duchesse D’Auerstadt, T.; yellow.

Fanny Stolwerk, T.; salmon rose.

Pink Rover, H.T.; light rose.

Paul’s Single White.

Ard’s Rover, Hybrid Perpetual; red.

Some Pillar Roses Of Moderate Height.

Purity, H.B.; white.

Belle Lyonnaise, T.; buff white.

Alister Stella Gray, N.; buff.

Climbing Captain Christy, H.C.; blush and pink.

Climbing Mrs. W. J. Grant, H.T.; salmon pink.

Climbing Kaiserin Augusta Victoria, H.T.; white shaded

to centre.

Gloire Lyonnaise, H.T.; white, lemon centre.

Gruss an Teplitz, H.T.; crimson.

Dawn, H.T.; nearly single, pale pink.

Coupe d’Hébé, Hyb.; pink.

Madame Plantier, Hyb.; white.

Blairii No. 2, Hyb.; clear pink and pink white.

Climbing Eugénie Verdier, H.P.; salmon pink.

Brightness of Cheshunt, H.P.; red.

Frances Bloxam, H.C.; salmon pink.

Climbing Victor Verdier, H.P.; red.

Climbing Pride of Waltham, H.P.; salmon.

Gloire des Rosomanes, Hyb.; red.

Charles Lawson, H.P.; rose.

CHAPTER VIII

The Pergola

Every garden is now wanting a Pergola, that pleasant shape of covered way that we have borrowed from Italy, where it is employed not only for its grateful shade but because it is just the right kind of support and way of treatment for the vines of sunny southern lands.

We have adopted the name because it is more convenient than the older name of covered alley, which three centuries ago was its nearest equivalent in English gardens. But this was formed on a much more elaborate wooden framework, a kind of uninterrupted arched trellis for the training of some green tree such as Hornbeam or Wych Elm, whose rigid branches had to be closely watched and carefully guided and fixed until the whole covering was complete; after which the chief care was the outer clipping into shape.

The modern pergola is a more free thing altogether and differently constructed. Upright piers of brick, stone, iron or wood are erected in pairs across the path and a connecting beam is put in place. A slighter top is made with thinner pieces such as larch poles, and the whole is planted with free growing climbers.

A Rose pergola should be so placed that it is well seen from the sides. One whose purpose is merely to make a shady way is better covered with leafy growths of Vine, Aristolochia or Virginia Creeper, for if they have not free air and space at the sides, the Roses will merely rush up and extend skyward where they cannot be seen.

But a pergola that crosses some open grassy space, such as might divide two portions of a garden, or that forms a middle line in the design of one complete garden scheme, is admirably suited for Roses, and a broad turf walk on each side will allow them to be seen to the best advantage.

Here it may be well to observe that a structure such as this, which is of some importance of size and appearance, cannot just be dabbed down anywhere. It ought to lead distinctly from some clear beginning to some definite end; it should be a distinct part of a scheme, otherwise it merely looks silly and out of ere is no space where it will be clearly right it is better not to have it. There are arrangements less binding to definite design, such as pillars of Roses or arches at a cross walk, and many free uses on fences, trees, and unsightly places. An arboured seat is always a good ending to a pergola, and a place where ways meet often suggests a suitable beginning. Such a place may be glorified by circular or octagonal treatment, with a central tank or fountain, and pillars of Roses to mark the points of the octagon or relative points on the circumference. But space, proportion, and the nature of the environment must all be considered; indeed in this, as in the very smallest detail of procedure in garden design, just the right thing should be done or it is better let alone.

In small gardens in which there is no general design there often occurs some space where one department gives place to another-as when flower garden adjoins vegetable ground-where a short pergola-like structure of two or three pairs of posts may be quite in place and will form a kind of deepened archway. Such an arrangement in iron is shown in the illustration, where it makes a pleasant break in an awkward corner where there is a mixture of wall and flower border and a turn of the path.

The pergola proper should be always on a level and should never curl or twist. If a change of level occurs in its length in the place where it is proposed to have it, it is much better to excavate and put in a bit of dry wall right and left and steps at the end, either free of the last arch or with- the last two pairs of piers carried up square to a higher level so as to give as much head-room at the top step as there is in the main alley.

There is a great advantage in having solid piers of masonry for such structures; piers of fourteen-inch brickwork are excellent, and in some districts even monoliths of stone can be obtained; but often the expense of stone or brickwork cannot be undertaken and something slighter and less costly must be used. The illustration of a Wistaria pergola is the more instructive because the structure shown is only a few years old and the way the framework is made may be clearly seen.

Here it is of squared wood, with the beams partly supported and much strengthened, and the whole fabric stiffened, by slightly curved or cambered braces of the same. It should be noticed how much the curve of the brace adds to the strength of the support and how pleasantly it satisfies the eye. It would have been better still if the beam itself had been ever so slightly cambered. It will also be seen that the feet of the posts, instead of going into the ground, rest on a wrought stone; an iron dowel let into both stone and post fixing firmly. Thus there is no danger of the foot of the post rotting.

For the first year or two there is no need to fill in the top with the slighter poles that later will support the more extensive growths of the creepers; indeed the whole thing is very pretty, with a different kind of form and beauty, to the mature pergola with its fully filled roof. In these earlier years one sees more of the individual plants, and their first vigour of growth and bloom can be more fully enjoyed. In many cases such pairs of posts with connecting beam and side rails, but without roof, are more suitable than the complete pergola. This arrangement is shown in the pictures where they are placed across the main walks of the kitchen garden and where the Roses are to be seen from the walk alone, not from the sides, which are only vegetable quarters.

In some of the illustrations the framework is of the simplest possible construction, of oak or of larch. In these the posts go into the ground. This of course will have a shorter lifetime, and after several years signs of weakness must be looked for. A spur of larch or oak going deep into the ground and nailed or bolted to a shaky post will prolong its life for some more years, but there always comes a time of sore regret (when constant repair is needed) that it was not made more structurally permanent at the beginning.

The sides of the pergola may be much ornamented by hanging garlands of Roses trained to chains.

CHAPTER IX

Rose Arches and Arbours

Many are the ways in which an arch of Roses may be beautiful in the garden, whether it be a garden of some distinctly set design or one that is quite informal.

Where two ways meet or cross at a right angle there is always an opportunity for the placing of an arch of Roses, or where flower garden passes into kitchen garden, whether it be walled or not. A Rose arch is none the less a Rose arch because there is a brick arch behind it, although what is generally understood as a Rose arch is one that stands free or is in connection with a bounding hedge, the Rose itself forming the arch, only supported by a framework of wood or iron.

But often in a modest garden there are other uses for a Rose arch, such as the garden will itself suggest. For instance, where a double flower border is made in a kitchen garden, and it is desirable to take up as little space as may be, a whole Rose scheme may be conveniently combined with borders of useful flowers for cutting or for contemplation. A four-foot grass or gravel path would have on each side borders of five feet wide. At intervals of twenty-five feet, Rose arches, the foot of the arches planted in the back of the borders, span the whole. At the back of both borders is a hedge of Roses that will grow about three feet high. If the space is divided into four, points will be found for three pillar Roses rising from the hedge and in a line with it; those will therefore stand about eight feet apart.

The illustration shows a Crimson Rambler trained over a wire support in a free hedge of Rhododendrons in a place where a path from one division of a garden leads into another.

An incident in this picture that is not at all of unfrequent occurrence is worthy of notice. It is the carefully made rabbit-proof iron fencing, with two wires out in the lower part of the gate, leaving a space which seems to invite the entrance of any small animal. When it is desired to keep out rabbits, and an expensive fence is put up for the purpose, one such oversight makes the whole thing useless. Gates of this slight construction, which are in themselves perhaps the least distressing to the eye of all their unsightly class, are especially liable to injury from an accidental kick, or a blow from a barrow wheel.

Wrought iron gates, with richly designed ornament of the best kind that are made for the place itself, of perfect proportion and suitable enrichment, may well lead into and out of the Rose garden, or indeed any other garden division, and Roses may clamber near them, but it is more fitting that they should not climb over or into gates or screens of this class. Two such richly decorated objects as the artist-craftsman’s work in enduring metal and the clusters of living Rose had better be seen and enjoyed separately. But in the case of a simple arch in a brick garden wall and a wrought-iron gate of very simple design, such as the one in the illustration, the Rose is a welcome and rightly placed addition to the garden picture. The simple old Rose arbour, by no means so often seen as it might well be, should be in every modest garden. A Dundee Rambler on one side to cover the top, and an Aimée Vibert, or an alba kept to pillar height, to clothe the other side, will be an ample furnishing, though there is a sense of additional comfort if the back wall, unless the arbour is actually against a wall of brick or stone, were of some solid greenery, such as yew or box. An arbour may be anything between this and a more important structure, but in any case some free Roses at its opening offer a charming invitation to enter and rest in grateful shade in the June and July days of their blooming season.

CHAPTER X

Rose Screens, Hedges, and Trellises

Many are the opportunities in the planning of gardens for having a screen or hedge all of Roses. Sometimes it may occur as part of the Rose garden design, but more often in some detached portion of the grounds some kind of light screen is actually wanted. There are often rubbishy or at least unbeautiful spaces on some of the frontiers of the kitchen garden, where a Rose screen or hedge will not only hide the unsightliness, but will provide a thing beautiful, in itself and that yields a large quantity of bloom for cutting. Many are the kinds of structure that may be used to support and train the Roses. But with posts of oak or larch, and straight long lengths of sawn larch tips for the top rail, and some wire netting of the coarsest mesh, an effective framework may be easily and cheaply made that in three years will show a perfect covering of blooming Roses. Between this and the elaborately made wooden framings there are many grades and forms of flower wall or trellis that can be arranged according to special use or need. One pretty way is to have a low trellis with posts for pillar Roses at intervals. This can be carried a little further by having chains from post to post. If this should occur on each side of a path, the posts coming opposite each other can be connected by an arched top. This arrangement can also be very prettily adapted to such a Rose trellis at the back of a flower border, either at the two ends of the border or at intervals in its length. It would be an extremely pretty way of having a double flower border in three divisions, with such an open cross screen twice in the length, as well as at the beginning and end. The first division of the border might well be flowers all blue and white and pale yellow, with bluish foliage; the middle one of warm colourings of rose, red, scarlet, orange, and full yellows, and the third of purple, pale pink and white flowers, with silvery and other cool foliage.

Chains are generally used to form the garlands from post to post, and they are the best, as they hang in a good natural line. A cheaper and not bad substitute is wire rope. Whether chain or rope is used it is an excellent plan, and much better for the Roses, to wind thick tarred twine, or something stronger than twine—tarred cord as thick as the diameter of a large Sweet Pea seed—round and round the chain or wire, keeping the coils rather close, so that the Rose branches do not actually touch the iron but rest upon the coiled cord.

For the post and low trellis the posts are planted with any of the good ramblers or Roses of free growth, while the low trellis may have strong growing H.P.s or any of the Teas and Hybrid Teas usually described in Rose lists as “vigorous.” In this case two Roses, or three, according to space, preferably of the same kind, would be planted against each panel of the trellis. Another way would be to plant another Rose of rambling habit against the middle of the trellis and train it down over its next neighbour.

Posts when put into the ground should always have the ends prepared either by gas-tarring or by charring in the fire. This preparation should come up the post quite a foot out of the ground, as damp and rot attack it first at or near the ground line. If a better kind of wooden framework is made, the posts are set on stone or brickwork nine inches to a foot out of the ground, as described in the chapter on the pergola.

Roses of the free-growing kinds adapt themselves readily to the form of hedges. One has only to choose a Rose of more or less vigour, according to the height required. The hedge or screen way of growing them has the merit of ease of access for training and pruning as well as that of giving close enjoyment of the living walls of flowers. The tendency of nearly all strong growing Roses is to rush up and leave bare places below. A Rose hedge should, if possible, have a free space on both sides, when this defect can be remedied in two ways; one by training the shoots in an arched form with the tips bent well down, and the other to tip some of the outer strong young shoots that spring from the base. If in July these are shortened about a third, instead of continuing their growth in length, their energy goes to strengthening the shortened piece that is left. This will then, the following season, be thickly set with flowering laterals that will clothe the lower part of the hedge.

Many of the newer rambling Roses, the old Ayrshires and the stronger of the Teas, are admirable for this way of growth, while there are Roses to suit every height. The height of the Rose hedge, as in all other matters of garden design, must be determined in relation to the proportion of the space it is to fill and the size and distribution of whatever may be within view. Nothing is gained by carrying it up to a great height. Eight or nine feet is in most cases the limit of desirable height, while anything from four to seven feet will be likely to suit the wants of most modest gardens. A charming hedge four feet high can be made with the old favourite Madame Plantier. It is all the prettier if there is a short standard of the same at regular intervals. Another pretty hedge of the same class can be made with this good Rose in combination with one of pink colouring, such as the old H.P. Anna Alexieff. I know a pretty Rose hedge where the two are mixed; not planted alternately, but two or three of one kind and then one of the other, and so on in irregular sequence. Or it would be charming to have short standards of Anna Alexieff rising as just described from the low hedge of the white Madame Plantier.

No one would regret some planting of these two excellent old garden Roses. This one example is given as a type of this kind of planting. Any one who tried it and had enough garden sensibility to feel its charm, and enough garden fervour to wish to practise it in varied forms, would soon invent other combinations.

It would be easy to name many such desirable mixtures, but it is more helpful to show one simple thing that is easily understood, and that awakens interest and enthusiasm, and to leave those wholesome motive powers to do their own work, than it is to prompt the learner at every step, fussing like an anxious nurse, and doing for him, what, if his enthusiasm is true and deep and not mere idle froth, will give him more pleasure in the doing, and more profit in the learning, than if it were all done for him. For the very essence of good gardening is the taking of thought and trouble. No one can do good decorative work who does it merely from a written recipe. The use of such a book as this is to describe enough to set the Rose pilgrim on his road, not to blindfold him and lead him all the way by hand.

CHAPTER XI

Roses as Fountains and Growing Free

Among the many ways of worthily using the free Ayrshire Roses, one of the best is to leave them to their own way of growth, without any staking or guiding whatever. Due space must be allowed for their full size, which will be a diameter of some ten feet. Of these useful garden Roses none is more beautiful than the Garland, with its masses of pretty blush-white bloom. It is well worth getting up at 4 A.M. on a mid-June morning to see the tender loveliness of the newly opening buds; for, beautiful though they are at noon, they are better still when just awaking after the refreshing influence of the short summer night.

Several others among the old Ayrshires are excellent in this way of growth, though perhaps there are none to beat the Garland and Dundee Rambler. A grassy space where they may be seen all round, or a place where the great bush may be free at least on two sides, are the most suitable, or they may be used as central or symmetrically recurring points in a Rose garden of some size. The young growths that show above the mass when the bloom is waning are the flowering branches of next year; they will arch over and bear the clusters of flowers on short stems thrown out at each joint. The way these young main branches spring up and bend over when mature is exactly the way that best displays the bloom. Each little flower of the cluster is shown in just the most beautiful way; and it is charming to see, when light winds are about, how the ends of the sprays, slightly stirred by the active air, make pretty curtseying movements arising from the weight of the crowded bloom and the elasticity of the supporting stem.

There is a whole range of use of these beautiful Roses, from this free fountain shape without any artificial support, to association with trees and bushes in shrub clumps and wood edges, and from that to clambering into the trees themselves.

The illustration shows this pretty Cluster Rose growing over and among some Pernettyas, beside a broad grassy way that passes from garden into copse. The young growths may be seen rising above it, as yet quite soft and tender, and only half grown. As the year goes on they will harden and mature and arch over, and next year bloom in their turn.

When these free Roses rush up into trees, instead of throwing out their new growths from close to the earth, they are formed upon the older wood higher up, and the stem or stems that supports them go on growing till sometimes they attain a considerable thickness.

Everything that has been said of the Garland Rose, as to its use as a fountain Rose or free climber, may also be said of Dundee Rambler, Bennett’s Seedling, Félicité-Perpetue, and others of the cluster Roses classed as Ayrshires. They are all worthy of use in these ways, and of being encouraged to clamber into trees and hedges. One cannot help observing how the support of a tree encourages almost abnormal growth. The wild Dog-rose will go up twenty feet, and Sweet-brier nearly as high; while almost any Rose that has at all a climbing habit will exert itself to the utmost to get high up into the tree.

Climbing Aimée Vibert is generally used as a pillar Rose, but the picture shows how it will rush up into a tree and increase, not only in height but in freedom of flowering.

The free-growing R. multiflora of the Himalayas also forms immense fountains, spreading in diameter by naturally rooted layers, from which new plants take root at the outer circumference of the great bush, throwing up strong growths, and so continually increasing its area. The large flowered one (R. multiflora grandiflora), as well as the double kind, are valuable varieties, with all the freedom of the type, while each has its own distinct development of somewhat the same class of beauty.

For spaces between garden and wild, for sloping banks, for broken ground, as of an old gravel pit or other excavation, for all sorts of odds and ends of unclassified places about the home grounds, the rambling and free-growing Roses seem to be offered us by a specially benevolent horticultural providence. A well-prepared hole is all they need at first. About four years after planting, if the best they can do for us is desired, they should be looked to in the way of removing old wood. This should be done every two years, but beyond this they need no pruning and no staking whatever. When they begin to grow freely among bushes or trees, if it is desired to lead the far-reaching growths one way rather than another, it is easily done with a long forked stick, and a very pleasant and interesting job it is. It is like painting a picture with an immensely long-handled brush, for with a fourteen-foot pole with a forked end one can guide the branches into Yew or Holly or tall Thorn very nearly into such forms of upright spring or downward swag as one pleases.

It is pleasant, too, in such rough places, to see the behaviour of one of these Roses on the ground without support, and to watch the different way of its own brother plant climbing into a neighbouring tree.

CHAPTER XII

Roses on Walls and Houses

The name Cluster Rose, which formerly belonged almost entirely to the older class of garden Roses known as the Ayrshires, varieties of sempervirens, and the Musk Roses, has lately been necessarily extended to all the beautiful things that the last few years have given us, most of them hybrids of Rosa multiflora or polyantha. All these Roses are derived from species of rambling habit that in their native places climb about among rocks and bushes. They seem willing to extend their natural growth, for if guided into an evergreen tree, such as Holly or Ilex, they will clamber up to surprising heights. Climbing Aimée Vibert, for instance, which is generally used as a pillar Rose or for some such use as that shown in the frontispiece, will rush high up into a tree, as may be seen in the picture. The uses of these free Roses are unending, but just now it is their adaptation to house and garden walls that is under consideration. When growing naturally, these Roses throw out young rods of new growth every year; by degrees the older growths die, and the younger ones, pushing outward, shoot up through the dead and dying branches, both hiding them and displaying their own fresh young beauty.

But on a wall this internal scaffolding of dead wood cannot be tolerated, and a close watch has to be kept on the plants, and the older growths have to be cut right away at least every two years. How these free Roses will grow over and decorate the porch and walls of a small house of no architectural pretension may be seen from the illustration. It is just these houses that best lend themselves to the use of the climbing Roses, indeed many that are absolutely ugly, or worse than plainly ugly-debased by fictitious so-called ornament of the worst class-may be redeemed and even made beautiful by these bountiful and lovely Cluster Roses.

A modest dwelling that has no special beauty or character may by a clever use of climbing Roses be converted into a delightful object. No one could pass the roadside cottage shown in the illustration without a thrill of admiration for the free-growing cluster Rose that covers the walls and wreaths the front of the porch.

The little house itself has lost much of its true character from the evident alteration of the windows, which would originally have been either lead lights and casements, or, if sash windows, would have had the panes smaller, with rather thick sash-bars. The large panes destroy the proportion and make the house look too small for them. Some ugly flat frames to all the windows, and pediment-shaped additions to the tops of the lower ones, do much to destroy and vulgarise the effect of what must have been a little building with the modest charm of perfect simplicity. The lead-roofed porch is right, and so is the open wooden railing. One cannot but be thankful that when the windows were altered so much for the worse, the railing was not replaced by a cast-iron “ornamental” atrocity.

When a house is of fine design one hesitates about covering it with flowering plants, but in such cases they find their right places on terrace walls, unless these are decorated with wrought stone balustrading.

The illustration shows an example of good use of the beautiful Garland Rose on the terrace of a good square-built house of middle or late eighteenth century construction. The terrace is not balustraded, and the two or three feet of height gained by the rising of the Rose and the other free growths give the needed sense of security in a kind of living parapet.

Many are the Roses for use on garden walls. They are detailed in lists referred to at the end of the chapter on Pillar Roses, and only some of the most remarkable need be here noticed.

In the south of England, walls facing south and south-west are too hot a place for many of the Roses commonly planted against them, although these exposures suit the tender Roses, the Noisettes, Banksias, Macartneys, and Fortune’s Yellow, all of rambling growth. Here is also the place for the beautiful Persian Briers, including the scarlet so-called Austrian, the curious Abyssinian Rosa Ecae, with yellow blooms the size of a shilling, Rosa simplicifolia Hardi with yellow flowers that have a dark blotch at the base of the petal, and Rosa microphylla, a flower whose character is quite its own. The double variety has the best bloom and is very ornamental; in both the double and single the prickly calyx is a remarkable feature, as is also the fruit of the type, which by retaining this curious calyx forms a strange-looking hip.

On garden walls of other exposures in the southern parts of England almost any of the free-growing Roses will do well. Naturally in the colder midlands and in the damper climates of Scotland, Ireland, and Wales the warm aspects may be used for more kinds of Roses, such as the Teas and Hybrid Teas.

Many a beautiful effect may be gained by a Rose planted on one side of a wall and trained to tumble over the top on to the other side. Often a south wall is devoted to rather tender shrubs; in such a place if a hardy cluster Rose, such as Dundee Rambler, is planted on the north side, a good mass of its bloom will come over and help to decorate the walls on the more precious or southern face.

It should be remembered that as Roses on walls want training and pruning that it is well, even if there is an important flower border in front, to have a little blind alley running within a foot or so of the wall. If they are not easy to get at they are apt to be neglected. There must be every facility for training, pruning, mulching and cutting. The pruning in this case consists in the removal of the older wood of these free-growing Roses; it must never be neglected, or the plant will soon grow thin and leggy. Who does not know the starved wall Rose in a worn-out border against a bare wall, with ten or twelve feet of naked stem and branch and famished growth of flower and leaf covered with green-fly? Perhaps within three feet of its root is a flourishing Ivy, with a stem as thick as a man’s wrist, covering half the house and bulging with the loose untidy nests of house sparrows. If we expect a Rose to give its beauty we should at least let it have fair play both above ground and below; in the ground by giving it proper space and nutriment, and above by watching for the time when old wood should be cut out, rampant young stuff tipped, and new flowering wood trained in.

CHAPTER XIII

Roses for Converting Ugliness to Beauty

No plant is more helpful and accommodating than the Rose in the way of screening ugliness and providing living curtains of flowery drapery for putting over dull or unsightly places. For instance, no object can be much less of an adornment to a garden than the class of ready-made wooden arbour or summerhouse “made of well-seasoned deal, and painted three coats complete.” Yet by covering it with an outer skin of ramping Roses it may in about three years be made a beautiful thing, instead of an eyesore. The illustration shows such a house that has been  planted with Crimson Rambler and other free-growing Roses. Larch poles, connected by top rails, have been placed round it. The spreading branches of the Roses will reach out over the rails, and the whole thing will become a house of Roses. Not only will it be beautiful, but the deep masses of leafy and flowery branches will keep off the sun-heat, which, without such a shield, makes these small wooden buildings insufferably hot in summer.

Many an old farmhouse is now being converted into a dwelling-house for another class of resident, and wise are they who consider well before they pull down the old farm buildings. For even a tarred shed, with a thatched or tiled roof, may soon be made beautiful by a planting of these beneficent Rambling Roses. Many of the buildings, shed or barn, cowhouse or stable, may still have the weatherboarding undefiled by gas-tar, and if so, its silvery grey colour is a ground whose becoming quality can hardly be beaten for tender pink and rosy Roses. Dead or unprofitable old orchard trees, too, may have their smaller branches sawn off and be planted with Roses. If they are shaky, some stout oaken props, also rose-clothed, will steady them for many a year. When once these Roses get hold and grow vigorously the amount of their yearly growth is surprising.

Generally among these farm buildings there is, in the enclosed yard, a simple shelter for animals, made of posts supporting a lean-to roof, either against a barn or a high wall. This, without alteration, or merely by knocking through the two ends, may be made into a delightful shaded cloister, each post having its Rose. There would not need to be a climbing Rose to every post, but a climbing and a pillar Rose alternately. The lean-to roof would need some slight trellising, the rougher the better. No material for this is so good as oak, not sawn but split. Split wood lasts much longer than sawn, as it rends in its natural lines of cleavage and leaves fairly smooth edges. Sawing cuts cruelly across and across the fibres, leaving a fringe or ragged pile of torn and jagged fibre which catches and holds the wet and invites surface decay.

These farm places have also commonly old field hedges, some one of which may become the boundary of the new pleasure garden. If it is rightly placed for shelter or for its original purpose of a field fence, or for its newer service, it is better not to grub it up, but to fill its gaps and weak places with free-growing Roses. If it has Thorns, either Blackthorn or Whitethorn, and Hollies, both of some height, it is a chance to be thankful for of showing how these grand rambling Roses will rush up and tumble out, and make lovely dainty wreaths and heavy-swagging garlands of their own wild will. We have only to place them well and show them how to go, to lead and persuade them just at the beginning. In two years’ time they will understand what is wanted, and will gladly do it of themselves in many ways of their own—ways much better than any that we could possibly have devised.

Then there is no end to the beautiful ways of making Rose arbours and tunnels, or Rose houses for the children. Dead trees or any rough branching wood can easily be put up and spiked together to make the necessary framework, and the Roses will take to it gladly. An old dead Apple tree, if it happens to stand where an arbour is wanted, need not even be moved; another bit of trunk can be put up eight feet away, and the branches of the standing one sawn off, all but those that go the right way. These branches can be worked in to form the top, keeping a stout, slightly curved piece for the front top beam. The Roses seem to delight in such a rough-built arbour, for they rush up and clothe it with most cheerful willingness.

The back-door region and back-yard of many a small house may be a model of tidy dullness, or it may be a warning example of sordid neglect; but a cataract of Rose bloom will in the one case give added happiness to the well-trained servants of the good housewife, and in the other may redeem the squalor by its gracious presence, and even by its clean, fresh beauty put better thoughts and desires into the minds of slatternly people.

What a splendid exercise it would be if people would only go round their places and look for all the ugly corners, and just think how they might be made beautiful by the use of free-growing Roses. Often there is some bare yard, and it has come within my own experience to say to the owner, “Why not have rambling Roses on these bare walls and arches?” and to have the answer, “But we cannot, because the yard is paved, or perhaps asphalted.” Is not a grand Rose worth the trouble of taking up two squares of flagging or cemented surface?

CHAPTER XIV

Rose Gardens

One of the many ways in which the splendid enthusiasm for good gardening—an enthusiasm which only grows stronger as time goes on—is showing itself, is in the general desire to use beautiful Roses more worthily. We are growing impatient of the usual Rose garden, generally a sort of target of concentric rings of beds placed upon turf, often with no special aim at connected design with the portions of the garden immediately about it, and filled with plants without a thought of their colour effect or any other worthy intention.

Now that there is such good and wonderfully varied material to be had, it is all the more encouraging to make Rose gardens more beautiful, not with beds of Roses alone—many a Rose garden is already too extensive in its display of mere beds—but to consider the many different ways in which Roses not only consent to grow but in which they live most happily and look their best. Beds we have had, and arches and bowers, but very little as yet in the whole range of possible Rose garden beauty.

The Rose garden at its best admits of many more beauties than these alone. Of the Roses we have now to choose from some are actual species, and many of them so nearly related to species that their wild way of growth may well be taken into account and provided for. Thus the beautiful milk-white Rosa Brunoni of the Himalayas is at its best climbing into some thin growth of bush or small tree. Many of the numerous new rambling Roses, children of another Himalayan Rose, that have been hybridised with other species, and again crossed to gain variety of colour and shape, willingly lend themselves to the same treatment. Many Roses, even some of those that one thinks of as rather stiff bushes, the Scotch Briers, Rosa lucida and the like, only want the opportunity of being planted on some height, as on the upper edge of a retaining wall, to show that they are capable of exhibiting quite unexpected forms of growth and gracefulness, for they will fling themselves down the face of the wall and flower all the better for the greater freedom.

The beautiful and fast-growing Rosa wichuriana, with its neat white bloom and polished foliage, will grow either up a support or down a steep bank, or festoon the face of a wall far below its roots, and to the adventurously minded amateur disclose whole ranges of delightful possibilities; while, stimulated by the increased demand, growers are every year producing new hybrids and clever crosses derived from this accommodating plant.

So the thought comes that the Rose garden ought to be far more beautiful and interesting than it has ever yet been. In the hope of leading others to do more justice to the lovely plants that are only waiting to be well used, I will describe and partly illustrate such a Rose garden as I think should be made. In this, as in so much other gardening, it is much to be desired that the formal and free ways should both be used. If the transition is not too abrupt the two are always best when brought into harmonious companionship. The beauty of the grand old gardens of the Italian Renaissance would be shorn of half their impressive dignity and of nearly all their poetry, were they deprived of the encircling forest-like thickets of Arbutus, Evergreen Oak, and other native growths. The English Rose garden that I delight to dream of is also embowered in native woodland, that shall approach it nearly enough to afford a passing shade in some of the sunny hours, though not so closely as to rob the Roses at the root.

My Rose garden follows the declivities of a tiny, shallow valley, or is formed in such a shape. It is approached through a short piece of near home woodland of  dark-foliaged trees, for the most part evergreens; Yew, Holly, and Scotch Fir. The approach may come straight or at a right angle; a straight approach is shown in the plan. As it belongs to a house of classic design and of some importance, it will be treated, as to its midmost spaces, with the wrought stone steps and balustraded terraces, and such other accessories as will agree with those of the house itself.

The bottom of the little valley will be a sward of beautifully kept turf, only broken by broad flights of steps and dwarf walls where the natural descent makes a change of level necessary. The turf is some thirty feet wide; then on either side rises a retaining wall crowned by a balustrade. At the foot of this, on the further side, is a terrace whose whole width is about twenty-four feet. Then another and higher retaining wall rises to nearly the level of the wooded land above. This has no parapet or balustrade. The top edge of the wall is protected by bushy and free-growing Roses, and a walk runs parallel with it, bounded by rambling Roses on both sides. On the wooded side many of the Roses run up into the trees, while below Sweet-brier makes scented brakes and tangles.

The lawn level has a narrow border at the foot of the wall where on the sunnier side are Roses that are somewhat tender and not very large in growth. On the terraces there are Roses again, both on the side of the balustrade and on that of the retaining wall. The balustrade is not covered up or smothered with flowery growths, but here and there a Rose from above comes foaming up over its edge and falls over, folding it in a glorious mantle of flower and foliage. It is well where this occurs that the same Rose should be planted below and a little farther along, so that at one point the two join hands and grow together.

So there would be the quiet lawn spaces below, whose cool green prepares the eye by natural laws for the more complete enjoyment of the tinting of the flowers whether strong or tender, and there is the same cool green woodland carried far upward for the outer framing of the picture. In no other way that I can think of would beautiful groupings of Roses be so enjoyably seen, while the whole thing, if thoroughly well designed and proportioned, would be one complete picture of beauty and delight.

In a place that binds the designer to a greater degree of formality the upper terrace might be more rigidly treated, and the woodland, formed of Yew or Cypress, more symmetrically placed. On the other hand there is nothing to prevent the whole scheme being simplified and worked out roughly, with undressed stones for the steps and dry walling for the retaining walls, so as to be in keeping with the other portions of the grounds of any modest dwelling.

If a Rose garden is to be made on a level space where any artificial alteration of the ground is inexpedient, it will be found a great enhancement to the beauty of the Roses and to the whole effect of the garden if it is so planned that dark shrubs and  trees bound it on all sides. The plan shows a simple scheme where this is arranged. A central space of turf has Rose borders in the form shown. Outside is a wide grass walk, and beyond that dark shrubs. On the four sides grassy ways pass into the garden; while the whole outer edge of the Rose beds is set with posts connected by chains on which are pillar and free-growing cluster Roses placed alternately.

At each outer and inner angle of the design will be a free-growing Ayrshire or one of the now numerous Rambler group. Each of these will furnish the length of chain on its right and left, while Pillar Roses will clothe the posts between.

The background of dark trees is so important that I venture to dwell upon it with some degree of persistence. Any one who has seen an Ayrshire Rose running wild into a Yew will recognise the value of the dark foliage as a ground for the tender blush white of the Rose; and so it is with the Rose garden as a whole.

The wisdom of this treatment is well known in all other kinds of gardening, but with the tender colourings of so many Roses it has a special value. It should be remembered that a Rose garden can never be called gorgeous; the term is quite unfitting. Even in high Rose tide, when fullest of bloom, what is most clearly felt is the lovable charm of Rose beauty, whether of the whole scene, or of some delightful detail or incident or even individual bloom.

The gorgeousness of brilliant bloom, fitly arranged, is for other plants and other portions of the garden here we do not want the mind disturbed or distracted from the beauty and delightfulness of the Rose. From many of the Rose gardens of the usual unsatisfactory type other kinds of gardening are seen, or perhaps a distant view, or a carriage road, or there is some one or other distracting influence that robs the Roses of the full exercise of their charm. Even in a walled space, unless this is darkly wooded round, it is better not to have Roses on the walls themselves, but rather to have the walls clothed with dark greenery.

The beneficent effect of neighbouring dark trees may be seen in the picture of the Rose arches. Any trees of dark or dusky foliage serve well as Rose backgrounds,  whether of the greyish tone of the common juniper or the richer greens of Thuya or Cypress, Yew or Holly.

In the few instances that can be given in a book it is impossible to consider a hundredth part of the many varying circumstances of different gardens. Each place has its own character, and the choice of site for the Rose garden will necessarily be governed by the natural conditions of the place.

One illustration shows a Rose border made just under a terrace wall. The ground to the right slopes too sharply to allow of a broader grass walk without having another retaining wall below; had it not been for this, a space of turf as wide again, between the border and the Rose hedge, would have been better. Here also is plainly seen the value of the dark evergreen trees above.

CHAPTER XV

Roses as Cut Flowers

There is scarcely any Rose that we can wish to have in our gardens that is not also delightful in the cut state. A china bowl filled with well-grown Hybrid Perpetuals, grand of colour and sweetly scented, is a room decoration that can hardly be beaten both for beauty and for the pleasure it gives, whether in a sitting-room or on the breakfast table. The only weak point about cut Roses is that their life is short. The day they are cut they are at their best, the next day they will do, but the third day they lose colour, scent, and texture. Still it is so delightful to any one who lives a fairly simple life in the country to go out and cut a bunch of Roses, that the need for their often renewal is only an impulse towards the fulfillment of a household duty of that pleasant class that is all delight and no drudgery.

Tea Roses last quite a day longer than Hybrid Perpetuals, but they need more careful arrangement, for many of them have rather weak stalks and hang their heads. Still these may be avoided and only strong-stalked ones used. In most cases they are best by  themselves, without the addition of any other flowers. In my own practice the only notable exception I make to this general rule is with the Cabbage and Moss Roses, the Damasks, and other old garden kinds. Whether it is that they are so closely associated with what one considers the true old garden flowers, or for some reason of their own ordaining, I could not say, but about midsummer I have great pleasure in putting together Cabbage, Moss, and Damask Roses with Honeysuckle and white Pinks, and China Roses also with white Pinks. The combination of these few flowers, all of sweetest scent, seems to convey, both by sight and smell, the true sentiment of the old English garden of the best and simplest kind.

Large Roses are top-heavy, and every one who is used to arranging flowers, must at some time or other have been vexed by a bunch of Roses carefully placed in a bowl conspiring together to fling themselves out of it all round at the same moment. It is well worth while to have wire frames made for the bowls that are generally in use. Two discs of wire netting with a top rim and three legs of stouter wire can be made by any whitesmith or ironmonger or by the ingenious amateur at home. The lower tier of netting should be an inch from the bottom of the bowl, to catch the lower end of the stalk. I have often used three garden pots, one inside another in a china bowl, thus making three concentric rings and one centre for stalk space. Stiff greenery, like Box or Holly, kept low in the bowl out of sight, also makes a good foundation.

Roses are best also with their own leaves, the chief exception to this being the beauty of red-tinted summer shoots of Oak, which in July and August are extremely harmonious with the colourings of the Teas and hybrid Chinas. Also in the autumn I like to use with my Roses some sprays of the wild Traveller’s joy (Clematis vitalba).

Some of the free-growing Roses are beautiful cut quite long, even to a length of three to four feet. They are delightful decorations in rooms of fair size, arranged in some large deep jar that will hold plenty of water, not only for their sustenance, but as a weighty counterpoise to the flower-laden branches that will hang abroad rather far from the centre of gravity. Roses like Madame Alfred Carrière, that flower in loose bunches on long stems, and the crimson half-double Reine Olga de Wurtemberg, with its incomparable foliage that can be cut almost any length, show by their natural way of growth how they must be arranged in long branching ways. The Ramblers and Ayrshires, too, are beautiful cut in yard-long branches, but are difficult to arrange. Special ways have to be devised for overcoming their desire to swing round flower-side down. But placed high, on the shoulder of some cabinet about six feet from the ground, with the lovely clusters trending downward, they are charming and beautiful room ornaments.

Great care should be given to assorting the colours and in putting together kinds that have some affinity of blood and harmony of tint. It is well never to mix Hybrid Perpetuals and Teas, except, perhaps, some of the more solid Teas of the Dijon class. But Roses well assorted are like a company of sympathetic friends—they better one another.

It is always well to have two or three of the same range of colouring, with perhaps one harmonious departure, such as Madame Lambard, Papa Gontier, and Laurette Messimy, or G. Nabonnand, Vicountess Folkestone, and Hon. Edith Gifford, or Souvenir de Catherine Guillot, White Maman Cochet, and Anna Ollivier.

The same suggestion will be found of use in arranging them in beds, for a jarring mixture, such as one of the orange-copper Hybrid Teas, with kinds of cool pink and white, will have an unsatisfactory effect. Both may be lovely things, but they should not be placed together. But to learn to observe this—first of all to see that it makes a difference, then to become aware that it might be better, and finally to be distinctly vexed with an inharmonious combination, these are all stages in growth of perception that should be gone through in the training of the Rose enthusiast’s mind and eye.

It is best and easiest to learn to do this with the cut flowers, and a pleasant task it is to have a quantity of mixed cut Roses and to lay them together in beautiful harmonies—best, perhaps, in some cool, shady place upon the grass—and then to observe what two or three, or three or four kinds, go best together, and to note it for further planting or indoor arrangement. Then, as an example of what is unsuitable, try a Captain Christy and a Madame Eugène Résal together, and see how two beautiful Roses can hurt each other by incompatibility of kind and colour.

CHAPTER XVI

Roses in English Gardens on the Riviera

It is very surprising to find how few kinds of Roses are grown in gardens on this coast, and consequently a mere list is rather disappointing, the fact being that it is the beauty and the abundance of their flowers that constitutes the charm rather than the very great variety of kinds. The cause is very easy to comprehend. Those who care for their gardens do not as a rule come out much before Christmas, and leave at the latest by the middle of May, so that any Rose that does not flower freely during the late autumn or early spring is of little importance, however beautiful it may be. Moreover, the great sun power and the fatal Rose beetles that tear the petals to ribbons in May prevent the latest Roses being of real value, while the gorgeous blaze of Geraniums, Gazanias, Petunias, and such summer flowers destroys the tender tones of those Roses which bloom late.

It is the climbing Roses that are the joy of the gardener here. They grow rampantly and flower profusely, whether they be grown trained to walls, pergolas, arches, pillars, and such like, or if they simply are planted near a tree, preferably an Olive or Cypress, and fling their sprays of blossom down from the very highest to the lowest branches, with never a pruning knife or gardener’s shears to mar their native grace.

The Banksian Roses must have the first place for beauty and abundance, though only the big white R. B. Fortunei is fairly perpetual, and decks its glossy evergreen foliage with isolated flowers through the whole winter. The single yellow Banksian Rose, introduced not more than twenty years ago from Italy, and first admired in Sir Thomas Hanbury’s well-known garden at La Mortola, deserves a special notice, because it is fully three weeks earlier than the double forms in spring, and gives a delightful summer effect in the month of March in sunny situations, and is even more rampant and floriferous than any other member of the family, becoming a real tree itself.

There are two forms of the double yellow Banksian Rose. For richness of colour and beauty of flowering spray I think Jaune decidedly the best, and indeed, for its period of flower, the most effective of all. The second and less well known form—that I know as Jaune serin—has larger, paler flowers on longer stems, is decidedly less brilliant in effect, but has just the same delicate perfume the small double white exhales, and which is curiously enough denied by many people who are appreciative of other scents.

The common double white Banksian Rose is the most abundant and ubiquitous of all, and is as much the ornament of trees, walls, pergolas, and pillars in the month of April and early May as the common Ivy is in more northern climates. It is everywhere, and nowhere out of place, though it loses its leaves in the month of January.

Rosa sinica, commonly called Rose Camellia on this coast (another eastern Rose), is an especial favourite here. Rampant in growth, abundant in its single white flowers, which first open in March, with thorny shoots whose red stems and glossy foliage enhances the purity of the petals, it heralds the arrival of sprl4 “g and prefers light and poor soils where many other Roses fail. Its new companion and hybrid, R. S. Anemone, promises to become even more beautiful, and being of a soft rose-du-Barri tint, will soon find its way everywhere, as there is no climbing Rose of its particular and lovely shade of colour.

Rosa bracteata, the Macartney Rose, is rarely seen as it flowers so late in spring, but as it blossoms well in autumn when R. sinica is barren, it should not be omitted. Its glossy, perfectly evergreen foliage is quite unique, and the long sprays tipped with its scented flowers in November are greatly admired.

R. Marie Leonidas (a double form of this Rose) is the freest winter bloomer of this section. Most beautiful in a few gardens, it is not grown as much as it deserves, as it is not a flower for the market, which alone is the criterion of worth to French gardeners. It should not be omitted by the amateur.

R. Fortunei. – To China again we are indebted for this lovely climber, perhaps in a sense the most notable of those yet mentioned, for it does not and cannot show its real beauty in northern gardens, where it needs shelter. Plant it near an Olive or Cypress, and in three or four years it will entirely cover the tree with a mantle of delicate sprays. Its flowers, lovely in shades of apricot and rose, contrast brilliantly with its apple-green and slender foliage. It is only a spring bloomer, but none the less indispensable on account of its grace and beauty.

R. Chromatella or Cloth of Gold. – A grand Rose, so rarely seen now that it should not be forgotten. Its individual blooms are unsurpassed in size and colour by any yellow Rose, and its December flowers are most beautiful of all when in a rich soil and sheltered position. The fact that its lovely buds bruise so easily, and that it is a special prey to mildew, are the reasons why it is now only to be found in a few gardens where it is extra happy. This is one of the Roses for which this coast was famous until the advent of Maréchal Niel entirely displaced it.

R. Maréchal Niel. – “Good wine needs no bush” is specially applicable to this grandest of all yellow climbing Roses, for it advertises itself everywhere in every garden, and by autumn pruning produces even lovelier flowers in December than can be seen in May when grown on sunny terraces. For Rose arches and arcades it is indispensable, and contributes largely to the effect of luxuriant beauty. What a pity its flowers do not hold up their heads as. R. Chromatella does.

R. Lamarque, with its lemon-centred and lemon-scented heads of flower, is the finest double white climbing Rose yet raised, although it dates from sixty years ago, and is still fresh, young, and beautiful. It blooms so well in late autumn and again in early April, that it is found in every garden, and we who come out from England have a special admiration for its masses of white flower, because it refuses to show its real beauty out of doors in England, and grows too rampantly when under glass.

Old Roses are, you will see, all my theme, so I feel no compunction in saying that the old Rose, Gloire des Rosomanes, semi-double though it be, is the only perfectly perpetual winter-blooming climbing red Rose yet raised. It is the only old Rose that is never flowerless throughout the severest weather on this coast, and it is particularly brilliant and fragrant both in autumn and in spring when the Banksian Roses need a rich red to contrast with their white and golden-buff tones. It is well known to many folk as the Bordighera Rose, though I do not know it is more abundant there than elsewhere. One of its seedlings, General Jacqueminot, is a household word, known and grown everywhere, and there are two more of its seedlings worth mention—Bardou job, which has merit, though it is not a winter bloomer, and also the new Noella Nabonnand, which is a decided advance in size and beauty, and is said to be a really good winter-blooming deep red Rose, a desideratum in these parts.

We all know the brilliant little China Rose Cramoisi Supérieur, but somehow I never saw in English gardens a good specimen of its variety or seedling Cramoisi Grimpant, and this latter is next in importance among climbing red Roses, for it will climb to fully twenty feet high, and cover itself with its rich crimson flowers all the winter through if only there be no frost. For hedges and pillars this is most decorative when it contrasts with the Banksian or Lamarque Roses, and forms a splendidly toned background to all light-coloured Roses.

Another climbing red Rose that I have never seen to advantage in England is heavily weighted by its senseless name, La France de ii889. Nevertheless, it is a very large, fragrant, and deep rose-red flower of great beauty, which makes prodigious shoots in autumn, and flowers by degrees, beginning at the top in December and continuing to do so lower down the long shoots throughout the season. It is of the very largest size, fragrant, and double, but I think it is capricious in some gardens, as beauties are apt to be.

A Rose much seen I only mention to reprobate in this climate, that is, Reine Olga de Wurtemberg, which though so good in England is here so fleeting and ugly in colour that I regret to see it, even though it be only for one week in early spring. Not so Marie Lavallée, a delightful blush pink, semi-double climbing Rose, the latest and the earliest of its colour, vigorous and fresh in every way.

Duchesse de Nemours is a fragrant and bright pink climber, double, and of fine size and form, which is only to be found in a few old gardens, but is far too good a Rose to pass by. In December, and again in May, it will produce a wonderful effect. It seems less easy to propagate from cuttings than other Roses, and is to be found in only one nurseryman’s list, but I am glad to say its merit has been recognised, and a stock of it will, I believe, soon again be obtainable. To my fancy it is far preferable to the deeper coloured Reine Marie Henriette, so very common all along the Riviera, and which in December, mingling with Rêve d’Or, has a great charm, even if it be not the very best of all.

R. La Grifferaie, which we seem only to know as a stock for other Roses, is a very brilliant and luxuriant climber in late spring, intensely bright pink in its clusters. The growth and foliage of this Rose are prodigious, and it requires a large space to do itself justice; were it perpetual it would rank as one of the best. Waltham Climber No. 3 shows to great advantage on this coast. Its long strong shoots are clothed with its scarlet-crimson flowers early in spring, and give a fair sprinkling of blooms continuously during winter when grown on a sunny pergola.

No mention has been made of Gloire de Dijon and its many seedlings, for they do not show to as great advantage as in more northern gardens.

Belle Lyonnaise is fairly good, but there is one of more modern date, Duchesse d’Auerstadt, which proves the exception to the rule, and is most excellent in every way. From its growth it is evidently from Rêve d’Or on one side, and is quite the finest, freest, and best of all golden-yellow Tea Roses of climbing habit. It will no doubt entirely displace Rêve d’Or, being its superior in every way, and this, to those who know that old Rose on this coast, is saying much.

Noisette Roses. – After Lamarque, which has already received its due notice, Jaune Desprez must be mentioned on account of its perfume and beauty in spring. Curiously enough it is not always a winter bloomer, but it still luxuriantly adorns many an old garden.

Idéal is essentially a Rose for this coast. In spring it even rivals Fortune’s Yellow, but it comes in several weeks later and is deeper in its rosy tones. Did it but bloom at all in winter it would be unsurpassable.

Dr. Rouges is the most intensely brilliant shade of orange-red that I know, and when fully proved will be invaluable as a climber when its winter blooming is established. The rich claret-red shoots in January are almost as brilliant as any flower could be.

William A. Richardson no longer climbs here, but flowers splendidly in winter as a straggling bush.

Pink Rover must certainly not be omitted from the list of climbing Roses, for there are so few of its fresh and lovely shade of colour. It is very sweet-scented, blooms abundantly before Christmas, and wherever grown is at once a favourite. It seems to revel in the conditions here.

Grüss an Teplitz, a seedling between Cramoisi Grimpant and Gloire des Rosomanes, is another very delightful semi-climbing Rose on this coast. Most brilliant red in colour, sweet-scented and free, it has hardly yet been sufficiently planted, so its merits are not fully established.

Hybrid Teas are decidedly the most in vogue now, owing not only to their size and beauty, but to the length of stalk with which they may be cut. As garden Roses they are equally valuable. Caroline Testout entirely takes the place of La France, which never showed itself to perfection on this coast. Marquise Litta has made its mark also, and is very rich and bright in colour during the winter. Gloire Lyonnaise and Captain Christy are splendid winter bloomers, but the flowers are not considered so valuable for the market. Belle Siebrecht is also becoming a very popular Rose, while Mme. Jules Grolez is considered worthless, for its petals are soft and easily spoilt, and it does not grow with anything like the same vigour. There is no doubt that many of the Roses that do well in English gardens do not enjoy a more southern climate, and it is curious to remark how the descriptions of French raisers refer generally to Roses grown in a hotter climate than England, so that their descriptions are not so likely to mislead in the south as those in the north are apt to imagine.

Hybrid Perpetual Roses are little grown, and are chiefly used for late autumn cutting out of doors. For the first three months of the year they are now flowered under glass, so that they can be cut with the long stems required in France. I need only mention Paul Neyron (so fine in December), Ulrich Brunner, Baroness Rothschild, Mrs. John Laing, General Jacqueminot, and Eclair as the best and most useful here. The growth of Roses under glass for market in January, February, and early March has become a great industry, and is largely displacing the hardy winter-blooming Teas grown on the sunny terraces.

Tea Roses, which not only bear but enjoy the summer heat and drought, flowering freely in November and December after the autumn rains and pruning, are cultivated not only in gardens, but as a field crop, and the December crop of bloom is the most valuable, so that everything yields to that. To name any but the most valuable is unnecessary here, and, roughly speaking, Nabonnand’s catalogue of his own seedlings represents what has been most grown during the last twenty years. Of these, however, many are obsolete.

Isabelle Nabonnand is one of the few really good winter Roses I have never seen grown in England. One of the oldest, it still is worth growing in any garden. Its blush-centred white blooms are fairly double, and yet open freely through the winter.

General Schablikine has at last found its way to England. For many years this was the only rose-coloured Tea to be depended on in winter. Now that glass is so much used, and larger and longer stalked blooms are required, it is only used as a decorative garden Rose. Marie Van Houtte is another old Rose that is gradually being superseded, as its flowers obstinately refuse to hold up their heads, but its beauty and freedom make it indispensable in the winter garden. Paul Nabonnand has for some years reigned supreme from the beauty and freedom of its pale pink blooms in December. It is the Rose that with Schablikine produces the most summer-like effect during the winter. Fiametta Nabonnand is a very good flesh-white Rose, as indeed are all those that are named after the Nabonnand family, particularly for winter blooming. Papa Gontier, so bold in growth, so rich in petal, is the most useful of all winter Roses for cut bloom. Its size and brilliant rose-pink colour are remarkable in this climate. I have never seen it in its true character in England. The fields and hedges of Safrano, the first of all winter-blooming Roses, deserve a passing mention, though now, save as a hedge Rose, it is not worth a place. Its abundance of flowers about Christmastide is its chief attraction, and at that season it is still sent in quantity to northern cities.

Antoine Rivoire is the Rose that has made a mark lately, both in the garden and in the grower’s ground. Its beauty and fresh pink and white colouring (white in December), and its fine vigorous stems crowned with bold upright flowers, have at once raised it to high favour. It looks as if it were a cross between Captain Christy and some old Tea like Rubens, and is better than either. Mme. Cadeau Ramey is a very sweet and lovely garden Rose, but has not as yet at all the same vogue, being of the Devoniensis type.

The China Roses and Hybrid Chinas do not find favour here, they are too fleeting and too thin, and Tea Roses give us more beauty. For instance, Beauté Inconstante, a Tea, has not only even more brilliant orange-scarlet tones than any hybrid China, but it is so free and hardy, as well as solid in petal, that it puts to shame its cousins that are so welcome in northern gardens.

Cramoisi Supérieur is lovely as a dwarf hedge, but is not nearly so good a winter bloomer as the climbing form Cramoisi Grimpant; so it is in hedgerows and avenues that the glowing masses of this are seen in company with the pale pink Indica Major, which here takes the place of the Hawthorn hedge.

CHAPTER XXIII

SOME LISTS OF THE BEST ROSES FOR VARIOUS USES

Abbreviations, &c, used in the Following Lists

A. – Autumn-flowering. Roses which flower in the summer, and again, with more or less freedom, in the autumn.

S. – Summer-flowering. Roses which only flower once within a year.

Cl. Poly. – Climbing Polyantha.

H.C. – Hybrid China.

H.N. – Hybrid Noisette.

HP. – Hybrid Perpetual.

H.T. – Hybrid Tea.

N. – Noisette.

Pom. – Pompon.

Sin. – Single-flowered.

By “exhibition Roses” is meant those varieties which are sufficiently large and perfect in form to be staged as separate blooms in boxes at the exhibitions. By “garden Roses” is meant all other varieties which are never so exhibited – except in those cases where an exhibition Rose is described as good both for exhibition and for garden decoration.

SELECT LIST OF ROSES FOR EXHIBITION

In the following selections the varieties have been arranged, under their different colours, according to the average number of times they were staged in the prize stands at the recent leading exhibitions of the National Rose Society.

EXHIBITION ROSES

HYBRID PERPETUALS AND HYBRID TEAS

White and Cream

Bessie Brown (H.T.).

Kaiserin Augusta Victoria (H.T.).

Marchioness of Londonderry.

Margaret Dickson.

White Lady (H.T.).

N.B. — Mildred Grant (H.T.) ; a lovely new creamy white variety ; it should be included in every exhibitor’s collection, however small.

Pink and Pale Rose

Mrs. John Laing.

Caroline Testout (H.T.).

Mrs. W. J. Grant (H.T.).

Her Majesty.

Mrs. R. G. Sharman-Crawford.

La France (H.T.).

Madame Gabriel Luizet.

Ulster.

Killarney (H.T.).

Baroness Rothschild.

Medium Red and Rose

Ulrich Brunner.

Marquise Litta (H.T.)

Gustave Piganeau.

Suzanne M. Rodocanachi.

Francois Michelon.

Helen Keller.

Dupuy Jamain.

Etienne Levet.

Tom Wood.

Duchesse de Morny.

Crimson

A. K. Williams.

Captain Hayward.

Alfred Colomb.

Marie Baumann.

Fisher Holmes.

Victor Hugo.

Comte de Raimbaud.

General Jacqueminot.

Duke of Edinburgh.

Dr. Andry.

E. Y. Teas.

Duchess of Bedford.

N.B. — The latest addition in this colour is Ben Cant,

most promising new Hybrid Perpetual.

Dark Crimson

Horace Vernet.

Earl of Dufferin.

Prince Arthur.

Charles Lefebvre.

Duke of Wellington.

Louis Van Houtte.

Xavier Olibo.

TEAS AND NOISETTES

White and Cream

White Maman Cochet.

The Bride.

Innocente Pirola.

Souvenir de S. A. Prince.

Muriel Grahame.

Souvenir d’Elise Vardon.

Niphetos.

Pink and Pale Rose

Maman Cochet.

Catherine Mermet.

Madame Cusin.

Bridesmaid.

Mrs. Edward Mawley.

Souvenir d’un Ami.

Madame de Watteville.

Ernest Metz.

Cleopatra.

Yellow, Buff, and Orange

Comtesse de Nadaillac.

Madame Hoste.

Maréchal Niel (N.).

Medea.

Marie Van Houtte.

Caroline Kuster (N.).

Anna Olivier.

N.B. — Lady Roberts, a beautiful salmon pink sport from

Anna Olivier, judging by the blooms recently exhibited,

promises to be a charming addition to the Tea and Noisette

section.

GARDEN OR DECORATIVE ROSES

In the following list the varieties have been arranged according to the number of times they were staged in the prize stands at the Exhibition held last year in the Temple Gardens, which was an unusually large and representative one:

Gustave Regis (H.T.).

Marquise de Salisbury (H.T.).

William Allen Richardson (N .)

Madame Pernet Ducher (H.T.).

Rosa macrantha (Sin.).

Turner’s Crimson Rambler (CI. Poly.).

Camoens (H.T.).

Madame Chedane Guinoisseau (T.).

Bardou Job (H.T.).

Alister Stella Gray (N.).

L’Ideal (N.).

Madame Falcot (T.).

Reine Olga de Wurtemberg (H.T.).

Souvenir de Catherine Guillot (T).

Paul’s Carmine Pillar (Sin.).

The Garland (H.C.).

Claire Jacquier (CI. Poly.).

Anne of Geierstein (Sweetbrier).

Laurette Messimy (C).

Ma Capucine (T).

Mignonette (Pom.).

Papillon (T.).

Paul’s Single White (Sin.).

Crested Moss (Moss).

Homere (T).

Perle d’Or (Pom.).

Rosa moschata alba (Sin.).

Rosa Mundi (Damask).

Brenda (Sweet-brier).

Madame Pierre Cochet (T.).

Meg Merrilies (Sweet-brier).

Red Damask (Damask).

Rosa himalayaca (Sin.).

Rosa lucida plena.

THE BEST ROSES FOR GROWING UNDER GLASS

Anna Olivier (T).

Baroness Rothschild (H.P.)

Bridesmaid (T).

Captain Hayward (H.P.).

Catherine Mermet (T.).

Caroline Testout (H.T.).

General Jacqueminot (H.P.).

Innocente Pirola (T.).

La France (H.T.).

Liberty (H.T.).

Madame de Watteville (T.).

Madame Hoste (T.).

Madame Lambard (T.).

Marie Van Houtte (T.).

Merveille de Lyon (H.P.).

Mrs. John Laing (H.P).

Mrs. R. G. Sharman – Crawford (H.P).

Mrs. W. J. Grant (H.T.).

Niphetos (T).

Perle des Jardins (T.).

Souvenir de S. A. Prince (T).

Souvenir d’un Ami (T).

S. M. Rodocanachi (H.P.).

Sunrise (T).

The Bride (T.).

Ulrich Brunner (H.P.).

Viscountess Folkestone (H.T.)

CLIMBING VARIETIES

Climbing Niphetos (T.). I

Marshal Niel (N.).

Climbing Perle des Jardins (T.).

Turner’s Crimson Rambler (CI. Poly.).

Fortune’s Yellow (N.).

William Allen Richardson(N.).

SELECT LIST OF ROSES

In the following list will be found, alphabetically arranged, a selection from the choicest varieties of Roses now in cultivation. The varieties marked with an asterisk make good standards :

Aimée Vibert(N.). — Pure white; late flowering ; very vigorous and almost evergreen. Flowers in clusters. (A.)

A. K. Williams (H.P.). — Carmine; early flowering and of moderate growth. One of the most perfect in form of all exhibition Roses. (A.)

* Alfred Colomb (H.P.). — Carmine; late flowering ; vigorous, and fragrant. A fine exhibition variety. (A.)

Alister Stella Gray (N.). — Pale yellow; a good climbing Rose ; flowers in clusters. Flowers again in the autumn. (A.)

Anna Olivier (T.). — Pale buff; vigorous; charming under glass, but the flowers in the open ground are easily damaged by wet. (A.)

Antoine Rivoire (H.T.). — Vigorous; a good cream-coloured garden Rose. (A.)

Augustine Guinoisseau (H.T.). — Blush white; vigorous; very free flowering, known as the ” White La France,” but the flowers are neither as large nor as full as La France. (A.)

Austrian Copper (Austrian Brier). — Coppery red inside of petal, and old gold outside ; vigorous. The most beautiful of all single-flowered Roses. (S.)

Austrian Yellow (Austrian Brier). — Yellow; vigorous. Like the foregoing, except as regards colour. (S.)

Bardou Job (H.T). — Crimson ; vigorous ; bears large beautifully shaded flowers which are almost single. (A.)

Baroness Rothschild (H.P.). — Pink; upright growth; late flowering and good in colour. Scentless. (A.)

Beauté Inconstante (N.). — Metallic red shaded yellow; vigorous. Distinct and charming in colour, but variable in this respect, as its name implies. (A.)

Beauty of Waltham (H.P.). — Crimson. A useful exhibition Rose. (A.)

Ben Cant (H.P.). — Crimson ; vigorous. A new and welcome addition to the crimson exhibition Roses. (A.)

Bennett’s Seedling, or Thoresbyana (Ayrshire). — White ; one of the very best and hardiest summer-flowering climbing Roses. Blooms in clusters. (S.)

Bessie Brown (H.T.). — Creamy white; vigorous. Although only sent out in 1899 it was last year to be seen in nearly every exhibition stand. The first of the really good whites among the H.P.’s and H.T.’s. (A.)

Bouquet d’ ‘Or (T.). — Dark yellow; very vigorous. The best of the Gloire de Dijon race in flower and habit of growth ; but not so free-flowering as Gloire de Dijon. Fragrant. (A.)

Bridesmaid (T.). — Pink ; moderately vigorous. A deep-coloured sport from Catherine Mermet, one of the best exhibition Teas. (A.)

Camoens (H.T.). — Rose ; vigorous. A pretty free-flowering garden Rose. (A.)

Captain Hayward (H.P.). — Crimson ; vigorous. One of the best crimson Roses for exhibition ; not very full, but has fine petals of great substance. (A.)

Caroline Testout (H.T.). — Pink ; vigorous. Takes a high position both as an exhibition and garden Rose. Fragrant. (A.)

Catherine Mermet (T.). — Pale pink; moderately vigorous. One of the best exhibition Teas, and, like nearly all the sports from it, has the most perfectly formed flowers of

all the Teas. (A.)

Cecile Brunner (Pom.). — Pink ; dwarf. The best of the pink Pompons. (A.)

Charles Lefebvre (H.P.). — Dark crimson; vigorous. An old exhibition Rose, which has never been equalled in its particular form and colour; few Roses are as beautiful when it is at its best. Fragrant. (A.)

Claire Jacquier (CI. Poly.). — Nankeen yellow ; a remarkably vigorous summer-flowering climber. Flowers in clusters. Not quite hardy. (S.)

Clara Watson (H.T). — Rosy cream ; vigorous. A free-flowering garden Rose. (A.)

Common or Old Moss (Moss). — Pink ; vigorous ; one of the oldest Roses grown, but still the best of all the Mosses. Fragrant. (S.)

Common Provence or Cabbage Rose (Provence). — Pink; moderately vigorous ; also one of our oldest Roses, but still unequalled in its class. (S.)

Common Sweet-brier (Sweet – brier). — Pale pink ; vigorous, foliage deliciously fragrant. (S.)

Common Monthly or Old Blush (China). — Pink; vigorous. The most perpetual flowering of all Roses. (A.)

Comte de Raimbaud(H.P.). — Crimson; vigorous, a fine crimson Rose for exhibition. (A.)

Comtesse de Nadaillac (T). — Peach shaded apricot; growth moderate; grand exhibition Tea Rose. When at its best no Tea Rose is as beautiful. Not an easy Rose to grow. (A.)

Cramoisi Supirieur (China). — Crimson ; moderately vigorous. The best of the crimson Chinas. (A.)

Dr. Andry (H.P.). — Crimson; vigorous; a strong -growing exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

Dr. Grill (T). — Pale rosy fawn; moderately vigorous. A distinct and free-flowering garden Rose. (A.)

* Duke of Edinburgh (H.P.). — Scarlet crimson; vigorous. A bright and strong-growing exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

Félicité-Perpetue (Evergreen). — Creamy white. One of the best white summer-flowering climbing Roses. Blooms in clusters of rosette-shaped flowers. (S.)

Fellenberg (China). — Crimson ; vigorous ; a good crimson in this free-flowering section. (A.)

* Fisher Holmes (H.P .). — Crimson; vigorous. A good exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

* General Jacqueminot (H.P.). — Crimson; vigorous; one of the oldest of the H.P.’s. An excellent exhibition and garden Rose. Fragrant. (A.)

* Gloire de Dijon (T.). — Buff. The most free-flowering of all climbing Roses, and for general usefulness has no equal. Fragrant. (A.)

Gloire Lyonnaise (H.T.). — Lemon white ; vigorous upright habit. A good and distinct garden Rose. (A.)

Gloire des Polyantha (Pom.). — Rose; dwarf; an excellent rose-coloured Pompon. (A.)

G. Nabonnand (T.). — Pale flesh; vigorous; one of the best garden Roses of its colour. (A.)

Gruss an Teplitz (H.T.). — Crimson; vigorous. Unequalled as a free-flowering crimson garden Rose ; a fine acquisition. (A.)

Gustave Piganeau (H.P.). — Shaded carmine; growth moderate ; a fine and trustworthy exhibition Rose ; but by no means an easy Rose to grow in many soils. (A.)

Gustave Regis (H.T.). — Nankeen yellow ; vigorous. The best and most vigorous of the yellow garden Roses. (A.)

Harrisonii (Austrian Brier). — Yellow ; vigorous. A very pretty summer-flowering garden Rose. (S.)

Her Majesty (H.P.). — Pale rose; vigorous upright habit. Flowers very large. A very fine late-flowering exhibition Rose. It is very subject to mildew and is scentless. (A.)

Horace Vernet (H.P.). — Dark crimson ; growth moderate. The most beautiful dark exhibition Rose in cultivation. By no means an easy Rose to grow in many localities. In some gardens it grows as vigorously as other H.P.’s, but in most places it makes but very poor growth. (A.)

Innocente Pirola (T.). — Creamy white. A fine exhibition Tea, rather subject to mildew. (A.)

Janet ‘s Pride (Sweet-brier). — White, tipped crimson; vigorous. Almost single-flowered. One of the best of the hybrid Sweet-briers. (S.)

* Kaiserin Augusta Victoria (H.T.). — Cream; vigorous. One of the best of the white, or nearly white, exhibition H.T.’s. There is a climbing variety of this Rose which promises to be a great acquisition. (A.)

Killarney (H.T.). — Pale pink; vigorous; already a great favourite. A good Rose for exhibition, and still more valuable for garden decoration. (A.)

Lady Penzance (Sweet-brier). — Coppery yellow. The most charming of all the hybrid Sweet-briers. It is said to be a cross between the common Sweet-brier and Austrian Copper. (S.)

*La France (H.T.). — Pale rose; vigorous. A hardy and very free-flowering exhibition and garden Rose. Fragrant. (A.)

*Laurette Messimy (China). — Rose ; vigorous. A lovely semi-double continuous-flowering garden Rose. (A.)

E Ideal (N.). — Metallic red ; vigorous. A strong-growing garden Rose. Distinct and charming in colour. (A.)

Longworth Rambler (H.T.). — Crimson. The best of all the red climbing Roses on account of its freedom of flowering in the autumn. (A.)

Ma Capucine (T). — Bronzy yellow, shaded red; of moderate growth. The best of all the button-hole Roses; quite distinct in colour. (A.)

Madame Abel Chatenay (H.T.). — Salmon pink; vigorous. The best garden Rose in its colour. (A.)

Madame Alfred Carrière (H.N.). — White. The best white climbing Rose. (A.)

Madame Anna Marie de Montravel (Pom.). — Dwarf. The best of the white Pompons. (A.)

Madame Chedane Guinoisseau (T.). — Yellow; moderately vigorous. A fine button-hole Rose. (A.)

Madame Cusin (T.). — Pale rose; upright growth. A good exhibition Tea ; rather tender. (A.)

Madame de Watteville (T.). — Cream-edged rose ; vigorous. A very distinct and pretty exhibition Tea ; rather tender. (A.)

Madame Eugene Résal (China). — Coppery rose; vigorous. Much like Laurette Messimy, but deeper in colour. (A.)

Madame Gabriel Luizet (H.P.). — Pink ; vigorous. An excellent early-flowering exhibition Rose. It seldom flowers in the autumn. (S.)

Madame Hoste (T.). — Lemon yellow; vigorous. A fine exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

Madame Jules Grolez (H.T.). — Clear rose; vigorous. A very distinct and free-flowering garden Rose. (A.)

Madame Lambard (T). — Salmon shaded rose; vigorous. A good and continuous-flowering garden Tea. Very variable in colour. (A.)

* Maman Cochet (T.). — Pale pink ; vigorous. A fine addition to the exhibition and garden Teas. (A.)

Marchioness of Londonderry (H.P.). — Ivory white; vigorous erect growth. Large petals of great substance. A good exhibition Rose. Colour too often a very unpleasant shade of white. (A.)

Maréchal Niel (N.). — Golden yellow; very vigorous. The finest yellow Rose in cultivation. Fragrant. Very subject to canker. (A.)

Marie Baumann (H.P.). — Soft carmine -red; moderately vigorous. A good exhibition Rose. Fragrant. (A.)

* Marie Van Houtte (T.). — Lemon yellow edged rose ; vigorous. A charming exhibition and garden Tea of good growth. (A.)

* Marquise Litta (H.T.). — Carmine rose ; vigorous. A fine and distinct early-flowering exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

Meg Merrilies (Sweet-brier). — Crimson ; very vigorous. One of the best of the Penzance Sweet-briers. (S.)

Mildred Grant (H.T ‘.). — White; vigorous. This variety promises to be one of the most beautiful white Roses in the Hybrid Tea section ever raised, and consequently will be a great acquisition to the exhibitor. (A.)

Mrs. Bosanquet (China). — Pale flesh; vigorous; very free-flowering. (A.)

Mrs. Edward Mawley (T.). — Pink, tinted carmine ; moderately vigorous ; very free-flowering. Although only sent out in 1899 has already taken a high position among the exhibition Teas. (A.)

* Mrs. John Laing (H.P.). — Rosy pink; vigorous. Few Roses have so many good qualities. It is hardy, of good growth, and free-flowering, and almost as good in the garden as in the show. (A.)

*Mrs. P. G. Sharman- Crawford (H.P.). — Rosy pink. Beautiful in colour, and a fine early-flowering exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

Mrs. W.J. Grant (H.T.). — Rosy pink ; moderately vigorous ; distinct in form and colour, and one of the best of our exhibition Roses. There is a climbing variety of this Rose which promises to be a great acquisition to the dwarf climbers. (A.)

Muriel Grahame (T.). — Pale cream; moderately vigorous. Has all the good qualities as an exhibition Tea of the fine variety, Catherine Mermet, from which it sported. (A.)

Paul’s Carmine Pillar (Sin. ). — Carmine ; very vigorous. The most beautiful red, climbing, single-flowered Rose that has yet been raised. (S.)

Perle des Rouges (Pom.). — Crimson ; dwarf. The best of the red Pompons. (A.)

Persian Yellow (Austrian Brier). — Golden yellow; vigorous. There is no other Rose in cultivation of the same bright shade of yellow. It does not succeed in all localities, and is the first Rose to feel the effects of a smoke-laden atmosphere. (S.)

* Prince Arthur (H.P.). — Shaded crimson ; vigorous. A good exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

Prince Camille de Rohan (H.P.). — Crimson maroon; vigorous. The best dark crimson Rose for garden decoration. (A.)

Reine Marie Henriette (H.T.). — Cherry carmine. A valuable red climbing Rose on account of its autumn-flowering qualities. (A.)

Reine Olga de Wurtemberg (H.T.). — Crimson. Almost a summer-flowering climbing Rose, as it yields so few blooms in the autumn. There is no red climber to equal it in colour. (S.)

Rêve d’Or (N.). — Buff yellow. A very vigorous, free-flowering climber. Not quite hardy. (A.)

Rosa alpina (Sin.). — Rose; vigorous. Interesting on account of its being thornless, and also as the earliest of all Roses to bloom. (S.)

Rosa macrantha (Sin.). — Flesh. One of the best of the single-flowered climbers. Rather subject to mildew. (S.)

Rosa moschata = Brunoni (Sin.). — White; a vigorous climbing Rose, producing clusters of small white flowers. (S.)

Rosa multiflora (Sin.), also known as Rosa polyantha simplex (single-flowered).  White ; a vigorous climber, producing large bunches of tiny white flowers. Rosa multiflora grandiflora is of similar growth, but the individual flowers are much larger. (S.)

Rosa Mundi (Gallica). — Red, striped white ; moderately vigorous. The best of the so-called York and Lancaster Roses. (S.)

Rosa rubrifolia (Sin.). — Rose; very vigorous. The flowers are insignificant, but the foliage is quite distinct from that of all other Roses, being of a peculiar purplish-red

shade. (S.)

Rosa sinica Anemone (single-flowered). — Pink shaded Rose; vigorous. Both the large single flowers and delicate glossy foliage are alike beautiful. (S.)

Souvenir d’ Elise Vardon (T.). — Cream; growth moderate. A fine exhibition Tea, but a difficult Rose to cultivate on account of its weak growth. (A.)

Souvenir de Catherine Guillot (T.).— Growth moderate. A distinct and charming button-hole Rose. A vigorous-growing Rose of the same unique colour would be a great acquisition. (A.)

Souvenir de la Malmaison (Bourbon). — Blush white ; vigorous. One of the oldest Roses grown. A hardy and free- flowering garden Rose. (A.)

Souvenir de S. A. Prince (T.). — White; vigorous. A good white exhibition and garden Tea. (A.)

Souvenir du President Carnot (H.T.). — White; vigorous. A very free-flowering garden Rose. (A.)

Stanwell Perpetual (Scotch). — Pale blush. One of the earliest and latest garden Roses to flower. Fragrant. (A.)

* Suzanne M. Rodocanachi (H.P.). — Glowing rose; vigorous. A lovely exhibition and garden Rose. (A.)

The Bride (T.). — White; moderately vigorous. Has all the good qualities as an exhibition Rose of the fine variety, Catherine Mermet, from which it sported. (A.)

The Garland (H.C.). — Blush. A very old summer-flowering climber of distinct habit and foliage. (S.)

Turner’s Crimson Rambler (CI. Poly.). — Crimson. A remarkably vigorous climber; flowers freely in clusters. Few climbing Roses in recent years have been so largely grown. (S.)

*Ulrich Brunner (H.P.). — Cherry red. One of the most vigorous of all the H.P.’s. Fine both as an exhibition and garden Rose. (A)

Victor Hugo (H.P.). — Bright crimson; moderately vigorous. The brightest crimson of all the exhibition H.P.’s. (A.)

* Viscountess Folkestone (H.T ‘.). — Creamy white ; vigorous ; free- flowering. The most charming white, or nearly white, garden Rose. (A.)

White Banksian and Yellow Banksian. — Both are very old climbing Roses, bearing clusters of small double flowers. Being tender they will only thrive out-of-doors in warm

and sheltered situations. (S.)

* White Maman Cochet (T.).— White ; vigorous. The best exhibition and garden Tea Rose of recent introduction. (A.)

White Pet (China). — White ; vigorous. May be best described as a dwarf-growing and free-flowering Félicité-Perpetue. (A.)

Wichuriana (Sin.). — White; very vigorous. A new type of Rose which has a trailing habit, and late in the summer bears a large number of small white flowers. The foliage is small and shining. (S.)

* William Allen Richardson (N.). — Deep orange, with white edges. A most distinct and valuable climbing Rose. Early in the season the flowers often come almost white. (A.)

A good many charming Roses are unavoidably omitted from the above list, but sufficient have been mentioned to show the wealth of really good varieties for all purposes now available.

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